Flashcards in 200 series p 500-635 Deck (135):
What hose line should be used for a car fire
The minimum size of hoseline is the 1-1/2" hand line
if tank water is not enough to fight a car fire what should be done
If the water carried on the responding apparatus will not be sufficient, early considerations must be given to additional water supply sources. A supply line or other engines/tenders may be required. Ladder companies may be used as an improvised standpipe at incidents on elevated freeways or parking garages
if the LPG tank has ignited in a car fire what should be done
If vapors escaping from the storage tank relief valve have ignited, allow the LPG/LNG to burn while protecting exposures and cooling the tank. Flow of gas through piping can be controlled by shutting off the valve at the storage tank or emergency shut-off valve
how far have Energy Absorbing Bumpers been known to travel when released from vehicle
Bumper assemblies have been known to travel 25 feet
how do we address combustible metals in a car fire
When these metals are burning, attempts to extinguish them with water will usually add to the intensity of the fire. Large quantities of water, however, will cool the metal below its ignition temperature. After some initial intensification, the fire should go out. Dry chemical extinguishers can also be effective
what hazards are associated with a tire fire
Exposure hazards associated with the smoke plume, water runoff, and soil include: • Volatile organic chemicals • Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons • Carbon monoxide • Heavy metals
how is a tire fire dispatched
It is recommended that major tire fires be handled as hazardous materials incidents. The incident taker will obtain all available information from the caller to determine what's on fire. A hazardous 2-1 will be dispatched if it is determined that a tire pile is on fire
what are the three stages of a tire fire
• Free burning
when is the incipient stage of a tire fire and how is it controlled
The incipient stage of a tire fire begins with a point of ignition. Once a tire has gained an open flame front, the heat of the fire is absorbed by the surrounding tire material. Immediately separating the burning tire from the rest of the pile and/or applying water and foam could eliminate the threat to the remaining tires
what is to be expected during the free burning stage of a tire fire
During the free burning stage, fire spreads quickly and there is a dramatic increase in smoke and heat. Use of water in this stage of a tire fire could increase the products of incomplete combustion like carbon monoxide and particulate matter. The cooled tires may continue to pyrolize, producing large quantities of oil
when does the smoldering phase begin in a tire fire and what are the hazards
A crust may form over the pile while internal temperatures reach about 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit. The smoldering stage has begun.Oil not consumed by the fire may leach into the soil, pool, and begin to flow under the pile. Heat from the fire could ignite the oil, resulting in a three-dimensional fire. Products of incomplete combustion continue to be a health hazard
Initial size-up at a tire fire must evaluate the emergency in terms of:
• Personnel safety
• Public health
• Environmental impact
• Threatened exposures
• Extent of fire
• Need for additional resources, including PIO
what needs to be deconned at a tire fire
The Incident Commander will establish a decontamination sector for all personnel leaving the fire area. All protective clothing, fire fighting equipment, and apparatus will need to be decontaminated as well
Areas of concern in a tire fire will include:
• Life safety
• Proximity of wild-lands
• Potential toxic run-off
• Bodies of water
• Smoke plume
• Wind direction/speed
Important tactical considerations in a tire fire should include:
• Life safety
• Protecting exposures
• Isolating burning tires
• Use of heavy equipment
• Overhead or underground utilities
*Immediate evacuation of civilians at the incident scene is a high priority
What are the three options for fighting a tire fire
What are the benefits to letting a tire fire burn
Letting a tire pile burn has its merits. Soil and water pollution may be drastically reduced when many of the products of combustion go up in smoke. The clean up costs can be reduced when compared to other options. Importantly, the fire service must manage and control the burn. Protecting exposures and separating tires from the burn area will continue to be a tactical priority
What are benefits to burying a tire fire
The decision to bury a tire pile also has merits. Sand, cement dust, quick lime, and crushed coral rock are all high in calcium content. Calcium scrubs sulfur from the emissions, creating calcium sulfate or gypsum. The “bury it strategy” could be employed in areas that have minimal water supply or in areas that are densely populated. The decision to bury a tire fire would take into consideration reducing toxic smoke for the sake of public health
What are the cons to burying a tire fire
Geological considerations play an important role in the bury it strategy. While the tire fire is entombed, fires can still pyrolize and push toxic oil into the soil and underground water sources. Burying a tire fire that is on top of clay soils may delay the oil from filtering to underground water supplies. To determine the release of pyrolitic oil, check down gradient from the pile for contamination
Drawbacks to the “drown it strategy” include
* An increase in the toxic air emissions as the fire is cooled causing the combustion process to slow down.
• An inordinate amount of water run-off combined with pyrolitic oil will be the result of trying to drown out a fire
*Handlines alone cannot reach the interior spaces of a tire fire
How is clean up of a tire done
Unlike traditional structural fires or wildland fires, clean-up on tire fires will, in all probability, be turned over to an appropriate environmental protection agency
What is the difference between a multi patient incident/ mass casualty/ and a disaster
a "multi-patient incident" is defined as any incident with fewer than 25 patients.
A "mass casualty incident" is defined as any incident involving 25 to 100 patients.
A "disaster" is defined as any incident involving more than 100 patients
The General Tactical objectives, for a large scale ems call listed in order of priority, are
1. Remove endangered occupants and treat the injured.
2. Stabilize the incident and provide for life safety.
3. Ensure the functions of triage, extrication, treatment and transportation are established.
4. Provide for the safety, accountability and welfare of rescue members and victims.
5. Conserve property
the EMS Tactical objectives to be completed during any multipatient/mass casualty, disaster incident include:
1. Completion of a "Triage Report"
2. Declaration of "All IMMEDIATES Transported
The initial actions of the first arriving officer on a major medical shall include:
1. Give an on-scene report and assume command.
2. Initiate triage.
3. Perform a rapid hazard assessment and establish a safe zone to operate.
4. Initiate traffic control and provide a safe work/treatment area.
5. Provide for hazard protection (charged hand line, etc.).
6. Call for additional resources.
7. Radio a Triage Report to Alarm.
8. Stabilize hazards and/or remove patients to a treatment area.
9. Assign crew(s) specific task(s) to accomplish through early sectorization (triage, extrication, treatment, and transportation) or by geographic location (north, south, east, west).
10. Initiate patient assessment and treatment functions.
11. Coordinate patient transportation
When should the triage tags be used and why
Triage tags should be used any time there are three (3) or more IMMEDIATE patients or more than ten (10) patients. The use of triage system can greatly improve initial scene organization, and enhance its use during mass casualty incidents
The first arriving company officer at a multiple patient incident will assume Command and give an on scene report which will answer what questions . . .
What do I have? What action will I take? What resources do I need? The type of situation and the approximate number and condition of patients should be communicated to Alarm as soon as possible
How can command provide for extra safety measures for crews working on a major medical
This can be accomplished through proper defensive apparatus positioning, use of flashing lights and the placement of cones, and the use of charged hand-lines. Additional traffic control should be requested from law enforcement through Alarm
In large incidents, which units come into the scene as opposed to going to staging
The first and second arriving companies will go to the scene, as well as the first ladder, and first chief officer. All other companies will use Level I staging upon their arrival
Where should outside agencies respond to when they get on scene
All outside agencies responding to a medical incident should be sent to the Staging Area
The Incident Commander (IC) on a major medical is responsible for the strategic level of the command structure and should do what
• Determine the appropriate strategy
• Establish overall incident objectives
• Set priorities
• Develop an action plan, communicate plan.
• Obtain and assign resources.
• Initiate planning based on evaluating interventions and predicting outcomes
• Communicate specific objective to tactical level units
• Initiate a Unified Command with other agencies
What are the basic sectors of a major med
Most multiple-patient incidents need patient triage, extrication, treatment, and transportation. Because of potential vehicle congestion at the site, a staging sector for apparatus is also a major consideration during larger incidents
What is the purpose of the triage sector
The purpose of Triage Sector is to determine, in close coordination with Extrication, the location, number and condition of patients and whether triage should be performed before or after patients are extricated from the site..Triage Sector should also forward triage-tracking slips to Command
What is The purpose of Extrication Sector is
Extrication is responsible for assigning and supervising extrication teams, extricating and delivering patients to the treatment area, and notifying Command when all patients have been removed from impact area. MINOR patients who were directed earlier in the incident by triage teams to an Assembly Area will be assessed by Extrication and delivered to the treatment area if further medical care is warranted
What is the purpose and responsibilities of treatment sector
The purpose of Treatment Sector is to first determine whether patient treatment will occur "in place" or in a designated treatment area. Generally, a centralized treatment area is preferred because patient care and site operations are usually enhanced. Treatment Sector is responsible for assigning and supervising treatment teams, ensuring that all patients have been triaged, assessed and treated. The Treatment Sector officer should coordinate patient allocation with Transportation Sector and notify Command when all patients have been treated
What is the purpose and responsibilities of transportation sector
The purpose of Transportation Sector is to obtain all modes of transportation needed to take patients to the hospital(s). Transportation should determine, in conjunction with Command, the location of the staging area, rescue/ambulance loading area, and helicopter landing-zone. Transportation Sector is also responsible for determining hospital availability through Alarm, coordinating patient allocation with Treatment Sector, and supervising the movement of patients from the treatment area to the rescue/ambulance loading area or helicopter landing-zone. Transportation Sector should also determine hospital destination and notify hospitals of rescue/ambulance arrival (through Alarm). Transportation should also remove patient tracking slips from the triage tag prior to transport, notify Command when all IMMEDIATE patients have been transported (an EMS Tactical benchmark) and maintain an accounting of all patients
What is medical supply sector responsible for and when should it be established
Medical Supply Sector is responsible for the procurement, delivery and stockpiling of medical supplies needed at the scene. This sector should be established on 3rd Alarm Medical or greater incidents
What are responsibilities of triage sector
1. Determine the location, number and condition of patients.
2. Determine, in close coordination with Extrication Sector, if triage will be performed in place or at the entrance to the treatment area. 3. Determine resources.
4. Assign and supervise triage teams.
5. Ensure that patient triage is based on S.T.A.R.T., that life-saving emergency medical care is provided as needed, and that patients are accounted for and tagged appropriately.
6. Ensure safety and accountability of all assigned members.
7. Provide frequent progress reports to Command.
8. Coordinate activities with other sectors.
9. When triage is complete, provide Command with a "Triage Report."
10. Forward triage tracking slips to Command.
11. Terminate triage activities and inform Command that members are available for reassignment
How many patients can the initial company triage
The Triage Sector Officer should wear a sector vest for identification purposes. At smaller incidents, up to 10 patients, triage may be handled by the first arriving company officer and his/her crew. At larger incidents, more than 10 patients, the first arriving company officer should assume Command and assign Triage to the next arriving fire company
What triage report system do we use, and where are tags delivered
Triage should be completed using the "Arizona Triage System." includes the number of patients and their classification These red fanny packs are located on all fire apparatus. Once the triage crew(s) has tagged and labeled all patients, they should forward their tracking slips to the Triage officer
What does the START triage stand for
Simple Triage and Rapid Transport (S.T.A.R.T.) system
What triage report system do we use, and where are tags delivered
Triage should be completed using the "Arizona Triage System." These red fanny packs are located on all fire apparatus. Once the triage crew(s) has tagged and labeled all patients, they should forward their tracking slips to the Triage officer
What does the START triage stand for
Simple Triage and Rapid Transport (S.T.A.R.T.) system
What is the extrication sector responsible for
The Extrication Sector is responsible for removing and delivering patients to a treatment area. The Extrication Sector will provide any patient treatment that is necessary prior to disentanglement
What are the 9 responsibilities of extrication sector
1. Determine the location, number and condition of all patients (coordinate with Triage).
2. Determine if triage will be performed in place or at the entrance to the treatment area (see "Triage Sector").
3. Determine resources.
4. Assign and supervise extrication teams.
5. Extricate and deliver patients to the treatment area(s) or to a casualty collection point.
6. Provide frequent progress reports to Command.
7. Ensure safety and accountability of all patients and assigned members.
8. Coordinate activities with other Sectors.
9. Notify Command when all patients have been removed and that companies are available for reassignment, “All clear in Extrication Sector
What is treatment sector responsible for
Treatment Sector is responsible for establishing a treatment area to provide stabilization and continuing care of patients until they can be transported to a medical facility
What are the duties of treatment sector
1. Identify whether patient treatment will occur "in place" or in a designated treatment area. Coordinate with Triage and Extrication Sector Officers.
2. Determine resources.
3. Identify and establish a large treatment area. If incident is large, establish separate "IMMEDIATE" and "DELAYED" treatment areas. 4. Assign and supervise treatment teams.
5. Ensure that all patients have been triaged, assessed and re-triaged as needed.
6. Aggressive treatment and rapid packaging of patients.
7. Provide frequent progress report to Command.
8. Ensure safety and accountability of all patients and assigned members.
9. Verify transportation priorities with Transportation Sector.
10. Coordinate with other sectors.
11. Notify Command when all patients have been moved from the treatment area
What resources should be given per patient in treatment sector
The goal will be to assign one ALS or BLS company and one ambulance to each patient, resources permitting
During a major incident what are the resources allowed for each patient in treatment sector
During major incidents, one company per four (4) patients should be the initial objective (one Rescue/ambulance per patient). As resources permit
Which med incidents do medical supply sectors get used
A Medical Supply Sector will automatically occur on all 3rd Alarm-Medical incidents. This sector should be established near the treatment area ("Medical Supply Sector
What are transportation sector responsibilities Transportation Sector Officer.
• Determine/request resources.
• Determine (with Command) the Rescue/ambulance loading area and helicopter landing zone, as needed.
• Determine hospital availability status by contacting Alarm.
• Coordinate patient allocation and destination with Treatment Sector.
• Aggressively supervise the movement of patients from the treatment area to the ambulance loading area or helicopter landing zone.
• Maintain an accounting of all patients and patient destinations. • Provide progress reports, allocations, ETA's, to receiving hospitals
How many ambulances should transportation sector keep in loading area
They should have two ground ambulances in the loading area at all times. These ambulances should have a separate entry and exit point into the loading area to eliminate the need to back ambulances
What is to be written on transportation tracking slips and where are they kept
Prior to transport, the Transportation Sector Officer (or designee) will remove a transportation tracking slip from each triage tag and write in the transport unit and hospital destination on the slip. These tracking slips are kept by Transportation to maintain an accounting of all patients leaving the scene. They can also be verified by Command, who has the initial triage tracking slips
The components of the Mesa Fire Department Infection Control Program include
: • The Infection Control Plan
• Risk management assessment
• Training, work practices and engineering controls
• Health and fitness maintenance programs
• Exposure management procedures
• Infection Control Officer responsibilities and duties
What are the three risk classifications pertaining to infectious exposure
• Those jobs with an increased risk of an occupational exposure such as Emergency Medical Technicians and Paramedics.
• Those jobs with some risk of an occupational exposure such as Battalion Chiefs (Supervisors), Support Services Personnel (Medical Equipment Repair), Recruit Firefighters, Pre-Recruits (medical equipment transport and/or cleaning), Connectors/Volunteers (people and medical equipment transport).
• Those with minimal or no risk of an occupational exposure such as administrative positions, clerical staff, and support staff
Under the infection control plan Training records shall include the following information:
• The dates of the training sessions
• The contents or a summary of the training sessions
• The names and qualifications of persons conducting the training. • The names and job titles of all persons attending the training sessions
Training records shall be maintained for 3 years from the date on which the training occurred
Where is contaminated ppe disposed of
Used and contaminated PPE may be disposed of in bio-hazard bags and dropped off at receiving hospital and/or sent to Fire Resource (Warehouse) for disposal by Allied Health Services
Members shall use the infection control (IC) personal protective equipment (PPE), distributed by the Department, to protect against exposures what is in them
The IC PPE pack will include the following items:
• Re-usable protective eyewear/glasses
Disposable droplet (N95) face mask
• Disposable sleeves
• Disposable gown
• Disposable gloves
• Anti-microbial skin cleaner
• Disposable CPR barrier device
• Portable sharps container
What is to be done with full sharps containers
When sharps disposal containers are full, the container shall be locked and placed in the resource pick-up location inside the bay with a completed memo request attached. Fire Resource personnel will pick-up the container and transport to the Fire warehouse for pick-up by Allied Health
How are infected surfaces to be cleaned
The surface to be cleaned should be left wet with the disinfectant for 30 seconds for HIV-1 and for 10 minutes for HBV
What is the Decon procedure for ppe equipment
Begin with soap and hot water
Next, use a 1:10 bleach/water solution or EPA approved germicide. The surface to be cleaned should be left wet with the disinfectant for 30 seconds for HIV-1 and for 10 minutes for HBV
Rinse item thoroughly.
Allow to air dry before storing
Equipment that cannot be submerged (stethoscope, ECG leads, monitor, etc.) should be cleaned using a spray bottle and disposable towel
What is to be used for respiratory protection during a pandemic and how is it cared for
During major health events such as pandemic influenza outbreaks reusable half face piece APR’s (air purifying respirator) cartridge masks will be issued. The mask comes with two P100 (HEPA) cartridges which can be reused indefinitely when properly decontaminated after each call. • Prior to doffing mask. Don a fresh pair of gloves and remove mask. Spray the entire exterior surface of the mask and cartridges down with the proper disinfectant solution. Allow to air dry prior placing in protective pouch. Decontamination solutions shall be selected relative to the type of outbreak. • H1N1 – Lysol spray and/or wipes
What is the CDC Laundry Recommendations for Washing Infected Material
Commercial laundry facilities often use water temperatures of at least 160 degrees F and 50-150 ppm of chlorine bleach to remove significant quantities of micro-organisms from grossly contaminated linen. Studies have shown that a satisfactory reduction of microbial contamination can be achieved at water temperatures lower than 160 degrees F if laundry chemicals suitable for low temperature washing are used at proper concentrations
Can bio contaminated laundry be washed at the station
Washers and dryers at individual fire stations are to be utilized for washing bio-contaminated laundry. All bio-contaminated laundry is to be washed separately from any other normal washing.
• After the bio-hazardous material has been washed, employees are to run a cycle of wash at 160 degrees F without any laundry and add chlorine bleach to the water to disinfect machine
What is the proper food handling procedure for the station
Keep Foods at safe temperatures. Hold cold foods at 40° F or below. Keep hot foods at 140° F or above. Foods are no longer safe to eat when they have been in the danger zone of 40° F - 140° F for more than 2 hours (1 hour if the temperature was above 90° F). When shopping, the 2 hour window includes the amount of time food is in the grocery basket, car and on the kitchen counter
How are left overs handled at the station
Refrigerate leftovers promptly. Placing hot leftovers directly in the refrigerator can cause uneven cooling and possibly food poisoning. Leave food to cool on the counter for up to an hour after cooking, or divide into smaller containers that can cool faster before refrigerating
Who are the designated Infection Control Officers (ICO
EMS Coordinators are the designated Infection Control Officers (ICO
What is the infection control officer responsible for
The ICO is responsible for:
• The annual review of the Department's Infection Control Plan.
• Investigating all reports of infectious exposures.
• Providing guidance and follow-up instructions when an infectious exposure occurs.
• Liaison communications with hospital infection control personnel. • Requesting source patient testing.
• Maintaining strict confidentiality of infectious exposure.
• Coordinating the collection and security of all infectious exposure records.
• Coordinating the immunization and vaccination of personnel
What info should dispatch try to get from the rp reporting a haz mat spill
The information should, if possible, include material name and/or type, amount and size of container(s), problem (leak, spill, fire, etc.) and dangerous properties of the materials AS WELL AS THE NUMBER OF PERSONS INJURED OR EXPOSED. The incident taker should remain on the telephone with the caller, if possible, to gain additional information after entering the call for dispatch
What is the action plan for a hazardous material incident
THE ACTION PLAN MUST PROVIDE FOR:
1. Safety of all fire members
2. Evacuation of endangered area, if necessary
3. Control of situation
4. Stabilization of hazardous materials, and/or
5. Disposal or removal of hazardous material
What are the two initial zones associated with a haz mat incident
They are the LIMITED ACCESS ZONE and the EVACUATION ZONE
What is the limited access zone in a haz incident
The LAZ is the area in which members are potentially, or in immediate danger from the hazardous condition. This is established by Command and controlled by the Fire Department (Site Control Sector). Access to this area will be rigidly controlled and only members with proper protective equipment and an assigned activity will enter. and identified by yellow hazard tape. (A Lobby Control Sector will be established to control access to the LAZ and maintain an awareness of which members are working in the area
What is the evacuation zone in a haz incident
The EZ is the larger area surrounding the LAZ in which a lesser degree of risk to members exists. All civilians will also be removed from this area
What are the three levels of evacuation in a haz incident
Site Evacuation, Intermediate Level Evacuation, and Large Scale Evacuation
What is site evacuation in a haz incident
Site evacuation involves a small number of citizens. This typically includes the workers at the site, and persons from adjacent occupancies or areas. The citizens are easily evacuated and collected upwind at the perimeter area. Evacuation holding times are typically short, generally less than two hours, and citizens are then permitted to return to their businesses or homes
What is intermediate level evacuation for a haz incident
This level affects off-site homes and businesses and normally affects fewer than 100 persons. Persons may remain out of the area for two to four hours or more
Large Scale Evacuation in haz incident
Thousands of citizens may need to be evacuated. Rapid initiation of the evacuation process may be required. Evacuees may be out of their homes and businesses for many hours or days
In-place sheltering during a haz mat incident can be considered during the following circumstances:
• The hazardous material has been identified as having a low or moderate level health risk
• The material has been released from its container and is now dissipating.
• Leaks can be controlled rapidly and before evacuation can be completed.
• Exposure to the product is expected to be short-term and of low health risk.
• The public can be adequately protected by staying indoorsIn-place sheltering can be considered during the following circumstances:
In a haz mat incident how much time does Red Cross need to set up long term shells
Once long-term shelter locations are identified The Red Cross will need up to three hours to get adequate personnel, equipment and supplies to the shelter sites
In an evacuation Provide the customer with evacuation instructions
. Take the following items: • Wallet/purse • House & car keys • Money • Eye glasses • Medications • Proper clothing
During an evacuation Some citizens may refuse to leave. A few methods of persuasion to leave include:
• Be in uniform.
• Wear your helmet.
• Wear SCBA and facepiece (air hose may not need to be connected) when advising the citizen to leave.
• Ask for next of kin and a phone number.
• Write the next of kin information down
What's the rule for evacuation
Evacuations follow somewhat of a triage philosophy--we'll evacuate the greatest number for the greatest benefit. Individual refusals will be left to fend for themselves
Who decides when evacuees go back to their homes
The decision to return evacuees to their homes will be the sole responsibility of the Fire Department Incident Commander
Who decides the most appropriate Decon procedure.
The Decontamination Sector Officer is responsible for determining the most appropriate decontamination procedures and managing the decontamination process. This should be done in conjunction with advice from the Poison Control Center
What assumption must the decon officer make
The Decontamination Sector Officer must assume that all members and equipment preparing to leave the Hot Zone are contaminated
What are the Three courses of action that are available to the decon officer
1. Confirm “not contaminated”--using instruments or investigation based on the nature of the situation.
2. Decontaminate (as appropriate to the situation) and release.
3. Retain and package items for removal from the site for disposal or decontamination at a different location
Where should the decon area be located
The Decontamination Area should be established within the Hot Zone perimeter adjacent to the Entrance/Exit (Lobby Control
Should the transport of immediate pts be delayed for decon
Transporting of Immediate patients should not be delayed for complete decontamination. Patients should be quickly treated for life threatening injuries simultaneous with decontamination efforts
What is the first priority in a haz incident
It is important that the first arriving Fire Department company make every effort to determine what hazardous material(s) is involved, and the amount, prior to taking action to stabilize the incident
What are six special considerations at a haz incident
Cooling Containers--Flame Impingement
Remove Uninvolved Materials
Stop the Leak
Apply Diluting Spray or Neutralizing Agent
Construct Dams, Dikes or Channels
Remove Ignition Source
What are four ways to cool containers with flame impingement
1. Obtain adequate water supply, use large GPM hose streams or deck guns.
2. Apply heavy streams to the vapor space area above the tank liquid line.
3. Use unmanned portable monitors.
4. Use natural barriers to protect personnel
Three rules for controlling a leaking container
1. Use water spray to approach leak.
2. Close valves when safe to do so.
3. Do not apply water to chlorine containers - it will make the leak worse
What are four rules for Constructing Dams, Dikes or Channels
1. Direct running liquid away from exposures.
2. Control run-off from corrosive or toxic materials.
3. Use sand or dirt.
4. Keep product out of sewer, storm systems, canals, or other waterways
What are the most common types of mercury
There are three types of mercury; the two most common types are elemental and inorganic mercury
Elemental Mercury (Hgo) how is it used and what are symptoms and treatment of pt exposure
: The most common sources of elemental mercury are blood pressure cuffs, oral and rectal thermometers, and in laboratories. Elemental mercury could also be found in the same processes where inorganic mercury may be used. Symptoms of initial toxic exposure to elemental mercury include fever, chills, dyspnea, and headache within several hours. Emergency care is supportive with transport to a hospital
Inorganic Mercury (HG+, HG++): how is it used and what are symptoms and treatment of exposures
The most common sources of inorganic mercury are scientific instruments, electrical equipment, felt making, and the manufacturing of caustic soda and disc batteries (watches). Acute effects include, but are not limited to, burning mouth, sore throat, nausea and vomiting with severe gingivitis. Emergency care is supportive with transport to a hospital
The third type of mercury and the least common is:
And what are symptoms of exposure
Organic Mercury (CH3Hg): The common sources or organic mercury are in mining, smelting, or refining operations. Symptoms include, but are not limited to, hearing defects and loss of concentration
Does fire department clean up,a mercury release
AT NO TIME SHALL THE FIRE DEPARTMENT ATTEMPT TO CLEAN UP A MERCURY RELEASE
When Fire Department units-arrive on scene , of a mercury spill Command shall:
A. Contact the on-site responsible party;
B. Determine the amount of mercury released;
C. Determine the mercury source and, if possible, secure the source to prevent further mercury loss.
D. Determine the size of affected area
Command is also responsible to do what in a mercury release
A. EVACUATE the affected area;
B. ISOLATE the affected area utilizing hazard line tape;
C. DENY ENTRY.
D. Request, through Dispatch, that the Fire Prevention Haz Mat specialist and the on-duty Special Operations personnel respond
What are five rules to follow to reduce exposure in a mercury release
SHALL NOT ENTER THE REPORTED SPILL AREA, UNLESS FOR RESCUE OR TREATMENT.
• Shoes, carpet, etc., are easily contaminated. Not entering the reported spill area will reduce the potential spreading of the mercury.
• SHALL NOT ATTEMPT TO CLEAN UP EVEN THE SMALLEST AMOUNT OF MERCURY RELEASED OR ANY OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS RELEASE.
• SHALL NOT TAKE POSSESSION OF THE MERCURY
SHALL NOT TRANSPORT ANY QUANTITY OF MERCURY, OR ANY OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
Does the fire department take possession of mercury brought to the station
1.When a resident brings mercury to the fire station, personnel may take possession of the mercury.
2. Fire Department members shall not take possession of mercury generated from a commercial business
What is Fire Preventions role in a mercury release depending upon each situation:
1.Respond to the incident location to document the requirement for a contractor with the appropriate equipment to clean up the spilled Mercury and to verify that the requirement is complied with.
2.Shall advise the responsible party of the contractors who have the appropriate equipment and shall remain on-scene until the contractor responds to the site.
3.Make or verify that all appropriate notifications are made
What is the On-duty Special Operations Personnel role in a mercury release , depending upon each situation:
1.Respond to the incident location to verify for the Incident Commander that all safety procedures are employed.
2.Assists the Incident Commander by verifying that the Fire Department's decontamination procedures are initiated and followed.
3.Make or verify that all appropriate notifications are made and notify the Incident Commander when completed
What are the RP's responsibilities in a mercury release
A.When required, contact and employ a contractor who has the appropriate equipment to cleanup and transport the mercury for proper disposal. The Fire Department shall not make the contact for the responsible party because the Fire Department does not want to incur the costs associated with the response or cleanup by a contractor.
B.Determine the names of persons who are known or suspected to be contaminated by mercury.
C.Make any other contacts deemed appropriate for the particular situation
In the event clothing, shoes, jewelry or miscellaneous items, are removed from a person,what should be done with them
place the items in a plastic bag, tie off, and place a name tag on the bag identifying the owner's name. DO NOT USE BIOHAZARD BAGS BECAUSE THE CONTRACTORS CANNOT ACCEPT IT; THERE ARE DIFFERENT FEDERALLY MANDATED DISPOSAL REQUIREMENTS THAT MUST BE COMPLIED WITH RELATING TO MERCURY AND BIOHAZARDOUS WASTE
MERCURY RELEASE IN A RESIDENCE
The Arizona Department of Environmental Quality has determined that a mercury release that occurs in a residence, including the interior of apartments, is household hazardous waste. As a result, the release is exempt from cleanup requirements. This does not, however, eliminate the need for response, evaluation of the hazard, and educating the homeowner/occupant
Commercial mercury release
A mercury release in common public areas such as pool-side or exit corridors at apartment complexes, condominiums, etc. would require compliance with the commercial facility section of this management procedure
When responding to the report of a mercury release in a residence, including the interior of apartments, the Fire Department shall:
1.Have the Dispatch Center page Fire Prevention and Special Operations personnel requesting response.
2.Recommend to the homeowner/occupant that no one be allowed to enter the affected area until the hazard has been evaluated
FIRE PREVENTION PERSONNEL will do what in a mercury spill at a residence
Fire Prevention personnel will explain to the homeowner/occupant of the hazards associated with the release of mercury and document on a 91-63 that it is the Fire Department's recommendation that a contractor with the appropriate metering equipment be employed to clean up and remove mercury contaminated items.
Fire Prevention will submit to the homeowner/occupant, the names and phone numbers of companies who have the proper mercury testing equipment.
Fire Prevention will also offer financial options that may be available to the homeowner/occupant such as homeowners insurance
What are the fire departments responsibilities during a radiological emergency
The Fire Department responsibilities during radiological emergencies include rescue, treatment, fire control/extinguishment, control of contamination spread and alerting responsible experts/agencies
Who does the clean up of radiological emergency
Actual clean-up and overhaul operations will not normally be a Fire Department responsibility, although the Fire Department will be responsible for seeing that such operations are completed. Shippers and/or manufacturers of radiological materials will normally be responsible for clean-up operations using trained clean-up personnel and equipment
Who is dispatched to radiological emergency
The Dispatch Center will dispatch either the first due Engine and HM210 or a 1st Alarm Haz Mat assignment, with the Hazardous Materials Team to any incident reported to involve radiological materials.
The size of the assignment will be based on the location and type of situation reported.
• Dispatch will advise responding units of the prevailing wind direction
. • When a radiological incident is confirmed, Dispatch will notify:
1. D.P.S. Communications to dispatch personnel from the Arizona Radiation Regulatory Agency and D.P.S
2. Phoenix Fire Department members with advanced radiological training-- (list in Information File).
3. Maricopa County Civil Defense--on request from Command
What should first arriving units do if no risk of exposure to radiological emergency
If there is no life hazard, rescue situation or fire, there is no reason to risk exposure of Fire Department members. First arriving units should secure a perimeter, evaluate the situation and wait for the arrival of the Hazardous Materials Team
What is given to all members in the hot zone of a radiological emergency
Dosimeters shall be issued to all members operating at the scene
How large is the hazard zone in a radiological emergency and who decides its size
Hazard Zone tape shall be stretched to define an area where readings of 2MR/hr are detectable. This must take into account potential downwind spread of contamination. Hazardous Materials Team members will determine readings and define the Limited Access Zone
How are pt's treated who have not yet been deconned in a radiological emergency
Patients requiring treatment, who cannot immediately be decontaminated, must be placed in an isolated Treatment Area, away from other patients and inside the Hot Zone perimeter
TACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS for radiological Incidents With Fire:
• Initiate normal tactical firefighting operations.
• Always approach from upwind.
• Do not ventilate.
• Minimize the use of water.
• Control water runoff-impound for disposal.
• Minimize exposure of members.
• Use full protective clothing with SCBA
Where are pts treated who have been contaminated by a radiological contaminant
All contaminated patients should be placed in one Treatment Area-separate from noncontaminated patients--within the Hot Zone perimeter, but beyond the 2 MR/hr exposure distance
What type of PPE is needed to treat pts with a radiological contamination.
All treatment members should use SCBA or dust-filtering type masks, long sleeve shirts or coats, gloves and nomex hoods.
• A mask or other airway filtering means should be used on the patient to limit inhalation/ingestion of airborne contamination
What are the three main operational problems with flammable liquids
The main operational problems with flammable liquids are fire extinguishment, ignition prevention, and disposal of spills. All three of these may be involved in the same incident
What is used to combat a flammable liquid
The principle agent for flammable liquid fire fighting is AFFF/Class B Foam (Aqueous Film Forming Foam). This agent is available from all engine companies and Resource Management. Initial attack on any flammable liquid fire should be made with Class B Foam
How often does class b foam need to be applied
Cover spills immediately with foam to seal vapors. The application may need to be repeated regularly, as the seal will break down in l0 to 15 minutes. Check for escaping vapors with a combustible gas indicator to judge when the seal is breaking down
How are flammable liquids disposed of
1. Large quantity spills should be picked up with a tanker truck whenever possible. This requires a fuel transfer pump or vacuum truck and personnel familiar with fuel transfer precautions.
2. Smaller spills (less than 10 gallons of Diesel or Leaded fuel,and less than 30 gallons of Unleaded fuel), which cannot be picked up with a tanker, must be absorbed or emulsified
When is Under Control used
The fire has been contained, and will not extend. It does not mean the fire is out. It may also be used during HazMat calls, indicating a leak has been secured
When is Secondary All Clear called
When A more comprehensive search of the building has been completed
What is the order model for radio communications
Sender will give unit ID and call the receiver by their unit ID. Receiver will give their ID to indicate they are ready to receive. Sender will then extend message, order, etc.Receiver will give ID and acknowledge receipt of message. A brief restatement is the best acknowledgment. Critical information should always be restated
When is emergency traffic used and how is it initiated
The term "EMERGENCY TRAFFIC" will be utilized by any unit encountering an immediately perilous situation and will receive the highest communications priority from Dispatch, Command and all operating units. Units may initiate emergency communications by depressing the "E" (emergency) button on their MCT, or by verbally contacting Alarm
What are the unit designations during radio communications
Officer of any unit Unit ID
Engineer of any Pumper Pump
Engineer of any Ladder Truck
Battalion Chiefs Battalion
Remaining members will go by their Unit ID and their personal name. ie. “E201 Firefighter Jones”, “L201 Firefighter Smith (no longer portable)
What radio codes does the mesa fire department use
There is no official Mesa Fire Department radio code. Plain language supports effective communications throughout the automatic aid system The only remaining code used, due to the urgent nature of the response is the 906 code. “906” means police are needed urgently
At what time are community service vehicles put into service
All Community Service vehicles are assumed to be available at 1300 hours unless Alarm is notified otherwise. Out of service notification should be done prior to 1300 hours to assist Alarm in making the first assignments for the day
What is the radio designation of the COMMUNITY SERVICE VEHICLES
These units rotate between stations and use the designation of the "home station" (i.e., "Patrol 201, 202, 204, 205, 208 or 209"). Patrol trucks can deliver Basic Life Support treatment
What is the radio designation for personnel assigned to special events
When personnel are assigned as Emergency Medical Service providers to special events such as baseball games, parades or other community events, their radio designation will be "Medic and the appropriate radio number (i.e., Medic 201
What does alarm do when a unit gets a move up
Alarm will use the move-up command to place the unit in the new station. The unit is put in the "Returning" status to keep from being recommended while moving. When the unit is able to respond to calls in the new area the "Available on Radio" status key (4) should be pressed and Alarm advised. When the unit reaches the new station the "Available in Quarters" status key (1) should be pressed. This entire process should be repeated to move back to the home station