2013 NC State Mock Exam Tangent Questions E Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2013 NC State Mock Exam Tangent Questions E Deck (76):
1

This organism was found in skin scrape of a sheep that was intensely pruritic.  Name the organism.

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Sarcoptes scabei

REPORTABLE.  Note tarsus with unjointed stak and sucker.  S. scabei Infests most mammalian species, but strains are host specific.  Will infest humans but strains found on sheep and goats do not persist on people.

 

2

What is this device used for in rats?

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Tail vein injection

1) http://www.plas-labs.com/illuminated_injection.cfm
2) PLAS LABS announcement. 2012. JAALAS. 51 (2): p. 739.
Domain 3; Primary species – Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

3

In a quarantine facility, what is the purpose of the pictured device?

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To indicate that air flow is from area of least risk into the greatest hazard i.e. negative pressure

1) Hessler JR, Lehner NDM. Eds, 2009. Planning and Designing Research Animal Facilities. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. Chapter 26 – Quarantine Facilities and Operation
Domain 4;

4

Which of the following, measured by the equipment pictured, is one of the most common and abundant gaseous pollutants associated with the husbandry of research animals?

 

a. Carbon dioxide
b. Ammonia
c. Humidity
d. Nitrite
 

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b. Ammonia

1) Hessler JR and Lehner NDM, eds.  2009.  Planning and Designing Research Animal Facilities, 1st ed.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 7 – Environmental Considerations for Research Animals, p. 63.
2) National Research Council (U.S.). 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.  Chapter 3- Environment, Housing and Management, p. 71.
Domain 4; Animal Care

5

The photomicrograph below is from a dead mouse. What is the most likely disease?  What immune component is an absolute requirement for recovery from this disease? 

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Syncytium is pictured.  Therefore, disease is most likely MHV as syncytium formation is a hallmark of MHV infection in many tissues.  Commonly found at the margin of necrosis.

Functional T cells are required for recovery from the enterotropic form of MHV.

1)  Percy DH and Barthold SW.  2007.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd edition.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa.  Chapter 1 – Mouse, p. 32.
2)  Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 1 – Biology and Diseases of Mice, p. 75.
3) http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/171544.htm
Domain 1; Primary Species – Mouse (Mus musculus)

6

The pictured piece of equipment is used for evaluating what in mice and rats?

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Elevated Plus Maze; Evaluating anxiety paradigms

1) Costa R, Tamascia ML, Nogueira MD, Casarini DE, Marcondes FK. 2012. Handling of Adolescent Rats Improves Learning and Memory and Decreases Anxiety. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 51:548-553
2) Zimberknopf E, Xavier GF, Kinsley CH, Felicio LF. 2011. Prior Parity Positively Regulates Learning and Memory in Young and Middle-Aged Rats. Comp Med 61:366-377  
Domain 3; Primary Species – Rat (Rattus norvegicus) and Mouse (Mus musculus)

7

Which of the following methods of euthanasia is conditionally acceptable in the laboratory animal species shown below?

 

a. Benzocaine hydrochloride
b. Double pithing
c. Decapitation and pithing
d. Hypothermia
 

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c. Decapitation and pithing

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 17- Biology and Diseases of Amphibians, p 814.
2) AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia.  June 2007.  Available at: http://www.avma.org/issues/animal_welfare/euthanasia.pdf.  Appendix 1- Agents and Methods of Euthanasia by Species, p 28.
3) (Image source: http://www.uniprot.org/taxonomy/8355)
Domain 2; Secondary species – African clawed frog (Xenopus spp.)

8

A 12 wk old rabbit exhibits profuse watery diarrhea and dies 2 days after exhibiting clinical signs.  Gross necropsy reveals thickened, edematous bowel wall with patches of hemorrhaging and has multifocal pinpoint white foci along the liver parenchyma and heart.  Warthrin-Starry silver stain of the liver reveals:

 

What is the most likely etiology?
 

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Clostridium piliforme

1)  Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 9 – Biology and Diseases of Rabbits, p. 340-341.
2) Porter RS 2011. The Merck Veterinary Manual (19th ed., Overview of Tyzzers Disease). Retrieved December 12, 2012.
Domain 1; Primary Species – Rabbit (Oryctololagus cuniculus)

9

The image above represents a method of:

 

a.  Euthanasia of Salmonids
b.  Euthanasia of Xenopus laevis
c.  Euthanasia of Xenopus
d.  Euthansia of Danio rerio
 

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d. Euthansia of Danio rerio

1) M Wilson, Jolaine; M Bunte, Ralph; J Carty, Anthony. 2009. Evaluation of Rapid Cooling and Tricaine Methanesulfonate (MS222) as Methods of Euthanasia in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)  JAALAS 48(6): pp. 785-789
Domain 2. Secondary species – Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

10

What is this device used for? 

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Nonhuman primate enrichment

Reference: http://www.primateproducts.com/enrichment-devices/puzzle-feeder/
Domain 4; 

11

This image depicts what piece of equipment that may be found in an animal facility?

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RFID tag

1) Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 2011. P. 75.
2) http://www.allentowninc.com/en/products/wicom/sensus.aspx
Domain 4

12

A 5 week old guinea pig presents with conjunctivitis with serous to purulent discharge.  A conjunctival smear stained with Giemsa is shown.  What is the most likely diagnosis, and how should it be treated?

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Chlamydophila caviae (Guinea Pig Inclusion Conjunctivitis - GPIC)

Self-limiting disease and can additionally include rhinitis, genital infections, lower respiratory infections, and abortions.  Can be treated with sulfonamides.  Does not affect humans, but has been used as a model for human chlamydophila infection.

1) Percy, DH, Barthold, SW.  2001.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits.  3rd edition.  Iowa State Press: Ames, IA.  Chapter 5 – Guinea Pig, p.228
2) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 6 – Biology and Diseases of Guinea Pigs, p. 220-221.
Domain 1; Secondary Species – Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus)

13

The pink arrow is pointing to what structure?

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peg teeth

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 9 – Biology and Diseases of Rabbits, p. 331.
2) Sukow MA, Stevens KA, Wilson RP, eds.  2012.  The Laboratory Rabbit, Guinea Pig, Hamster and Miscellaneous Rodents. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  Chapter 8 – Anatomy, Physiology, and Behavior, pp. 199.
Domain 1; Primary Species – Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

14

What is the genus and species of this parasite found in a Syrian hamster?

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Demodex criceti

Demodectic mites are still prevalent at about 5%.  D. aurati also infest hamsters, but have a characteristic thin, elongate body and a sharp opisthotomata at the posterior end.

1) Baker, DG. 2007. Flynn’s Parasites of Laboratory Animals. 2nd edition. Blackwell Publishing: Ames, IA. Chapter 12 – Parasites Of Hamsters, p. 404-405
2) Suckow MA, Stevens KA, Wilson RP, eds.  2012. The Laboratory Rabbit, Guinea Pig, Hamster, and Other Rodents, 1st edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 5 – Biology And Diseases of Hamsters, p. 857-859.
Domain 1; Secondary species – Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

15

Tissue from the distal small intestine of a young mouse.  Name the etiologic agent.

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Mouse Adenovirus-2

Intranuclear adenoviral inclusions in intestinal epithelium are pathognomonic and differentiate MAdV-2 infection from other viral infections in mice.

1) Percy DH and Barthold SW. 2007. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd edition. Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa. Chapter 1 – Mouse, p. 18.
2) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 3 – Biology and Diseases of Mice, p. 64.
Domain 1; Primary Species – Mouse (Mus Musculus)

16

This picture depicts a common injury associated with incorrect handling and restraint of this species.  Where is the lesion most likely located?

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L7

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press:  San Diego, CA.  Chapter 9 – Biology and Diseases of Rabbits, pg. 352
2) Hrapkiewicz K, Medina L. 2010.  Clinical Laboratory Animal Medicine – An Introduction, 3rd edition.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa.  Chapter 10 – Rabbits, pg 205. 
Domain 4; Primary Species – Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

17

This T-cell deficient GEM mouse presented with respiratory distress.  This finding would lead you to suspect what pathogen and what other staining technique would be useful in confirming your diagnosis?  

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Pneumocystis murina; silver-based or PAS staining

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 3 – Biology and Diseases of Mice, p. 97.
2) Percy DH and Barthold SW. 2007. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd edition. Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa. Chapter 1 – Mouse, p. 84.
Domain 1; Primary Species – Mouse (Mus musculus)

18

The image of the laboratory animal species shown below depicts which procedure that is commonly performed prior to parturition to minimize fetal contamination during the birthing process?

 

a. Flagging
b. Crutching
c. Processing
d. Grafting
 

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b. Crutching

References:  (Image source: http://www.sheep101.info/201/shearing.html)
1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 14- Biology and Diseases of Ruminants: Sheep, Goats, and Cattle, p 531.
2) Federation of Animal Science Societies, FASS 2010.  Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching (Ag Guide), 3rd edition.  Available at http://www.fass.org.  Chapter 10- Sheep and Goats, p 134.
Domain 4; Secondary species- Sheep (Ovis aries)

19

This animal is part of an R01 study.  If this animal shown in the picture is housed in a laboratory for 16 hours. Does the laboratory need to be inspected during IACUC semi-annual inspections, and why or why not?

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No, PHS requires inspections of all facilities were animals are housed for more than 24 hours.

1) Public Health Service on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, National Institutes of Health, pg 8.  Revised August 2002
2) http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_welfare/2011_Inspection_Guide/9.8.5%20Facility%20Inspection.pdf
Domain 5; Tertiary Species – Other birds

20

Use of the above vector in vertebrate animals at an institution that receives NIH funds, would require the institution to follow what set of federal rules:

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NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules

References:
http://oba.od.nih.gov/rdna/nih_guidelines_oba.html
Domain 5.

21

What is the pictured device used for?

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Euthanasia

References: Valentine H., et. Al. 2012. Sedation or inhalant anesthesia before euthanasia with CO2 does not reduce behavior or physiologic signs and stress in mice. Vol. 51, No. 1, p. 50-57.
Domain 2; Primary species – Mice (Mus musculus) 

22

The compound shown can be used to remove which molecule from water used to house amphibians?

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Chlorine

1)  Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.   2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd    
     edition.  Academic Press:  San Diego, CA.  Chapter 17 – Biology and Diseases of Amphibians, p.
     797.
2)  Browne RK, Odum RA, Herman T, Zippel K.  2007.  Facility Design and Associated Services for the
     Study of Amphibians.  ILAR J 48: 188-202. 
Domain 4; Tertiary Species – Other Amphibians

23

Interest in this species has centered around its susceptibility to  a variety of diseases including hantaviruses and Lyme disease.  What is this animal?

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Peromyscus

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 7 – Biology and Diseases of Other Rodents, p. 266-267.
2) Suckow, Mark A., Stevens, Karla A., Wilson, Ronald P., eds.  2012.  The Laboratory Rabbit, Guinea Pig, Hamster, and Other Rodents Elsevier: San Diego, CA., Chapter 46 – Other Rodents, Deer Mice, White-Footed Mice, and their Relatives. Pg 1082-1083.
Domain 3 – Tertiary species – Other Rodents

24

Which of the following statements is true regarding the image above?

 

a. Only the government may purchase dogs for research from this source.
b. Any institution may purchase dogs for research from this source.
c. This is not an acceptable source for research dogs.
d. This is a conditionally acceptable source for research dogs.
 

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b. Any institution may purchase dogs for research from this source.

1.) The Animal Welfare Act 9 CFR, Part 2- Regulations, Subpart A- Licensing, §2.1 Requirements and Application (11-01-05 Edition, p.26).
2.) Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 8th edition. 2011. National Research Council: Washington, DC 2011. Chapter 2- Animal Care and Use Program,  p. 12.
Domain 5; Primary Species – Dog (Canis familiaris)

25

The following species should be incubated at 99.5 Fahrenheit degrees for how many days to induce hatching?

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21 days

1)http://www.backyardchickens.com/a/how-to-incubate-hatch-eggs-just-21-days-from-egg-to-chicken
2)http://www.aaalac.org/accreditation/faq_landing.cfm#C2
Domain 4; Tertiary species – chickens (Gallus domesticus)

26

What grimace scale score do each picture represent?

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A = 0 (No pain)

B = 1 (Moderate)

C = 2 (Obvious)

1.)  Matsumiya LC, Sorge RE, Sotocinal SG, Tabaka JM, Wieskopf JS, Zaloum A, King OD, Mogil JS,  Using the Mouse Grimace Scale to Reevaluate the Efficacy of Postoperative Analgesics in Laboratory Mice.  J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci.    2012. 51(1):42-49.
2.) Langford DJ, Bailey AL, Chanda ML, Clarke SE, Drummond TE, Echols S, Glick S, Ingrao J, Klassen-Ross T, Lacroix-Fralish ML, Matsumiya L, Sorge RE, Sotocinal SG, Tabaka JM, Wong D, van den Maagdenberg AM, Ferrari MD, Craig KD, Mogil JS. Coding of facial expressions of pain in the laboratory mouse. Nat Methods. 2010 Jun;7(6):447-9.
Domain 2; Primary Species – Mice (Mus musculus)

27

The equipment shown above is utilized primarily to

 

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Sanitize shoe-box rodent cages, cage pans, water bottles and small equipment

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd ed.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA. Chapter 21, p. 933.
2) http://www.labrepco.com/store/categories/view/id/223/category/Tunnel_Washer
Domain 4;

 

28

What are the typical clinical signs in mice with this organism?

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Helicobacter spp.

Usually asymptomatic in immunocompetent mice.  Most, perhaps all, Helicobacter spp. are capable of inducing proliferative typhlocolitis in immunodeficient mice.

A/JCr, SCID/NCr, BALB/cANCr, C3H/HeNCr, and SJL/NCr are susceptible to hepatitis, wheras B6 and B6C3F1 are hepatitis-resistant.

A/J mice also develop earlier onset and higher prevalence of hepatocellular tunnors when infected with H. hepaticus.  More common in males, and incidence increased in ages > 6 months.

29

What is the most likely diagnosis?

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Zymbal’s gland adenocarcinoma

Can be adenomas or adenocarcinomas.  Malignant tumors that are locally invasive but not metastatic.

1) Percy DH and Barthold SW. 2007. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd edition. Blackwell Publishing Ltd: Ames, Iowa. Chapter 2 – Rat, p. 175.
2) Rudmann D, Cardiff R, Chouinard L, et al. Proliferative and Nonproliferative lesions of the Rat and Mouse Marray, Zymbal’s. Preputial, and Clitoral Glands. Toxicologic Pathology, 40:7S,1533-1601, 2012.
Domain 1; Primary Species – Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

30

What is the most likely etiology of the condition shown below?

a. Sarcoptes scabeii
b. Psoroptes cuniculi
c. Cheyletiella parasitovorax
d. Passalurus ambiguous
e. Notoedres cati

 

 

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b. Psoroptes cuniculi

All stages of the mite (egg, ;arva, protonymph, adult) occur on thre host.  Feed on sloughed skin cells, lipids, serum, hemoglobin, rbc.  Entire life cycle is 21 days.  Relatively resistant to drying and temperature, and can survive off host for 7-20 days in temperatures 5-30 C and 20-75% humidity.

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 9 Rabbits p349.
2) Percy DH and Barthold SW. 2007. Pathology of Laboratory rodents and rabbits, 3rd edition.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, IA.
3) Photo credit http://www.foxyrabbits.eu/teadmistepagas/haigused/lest/?lang=en
Domain 1; Primary species – Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

 

31

What is this mouse parasite and how is it best detected?

 

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Aspiculuris tetraptera

eggs by fecal flotation; adults found in large intestine

Life cycle is 23-25 days (compared to 11-15 for S. oblevata) therefore infestations appear in slightly older mice. Heaviest load around 5-6 weeks of age, but usually asymptomatic.  Eggs require 6-7 days at 24 C before becoming infective (compare to 6 hours for S. oblevata).  

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 3 – Biology and Diseases of Mice, p. 102
2) Percy, DH, Barthold, SW.  2001.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits.  3rd edition.  Iowa State Press: Ames, IA.  Chapter 1 – Mouse, p.90
Domain 1, K3;  Primary Species – Mouse (Mus musculus)

 

32

Research activies involving LCMV which entail low potential for aerosol transmission and small quantities of laboratory-adapted strains shown to be non-infectious to NHPs would require what BSL level in each of the pictured species?

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A - BSL-2

B - BSL-3

All work with LCMV in hamsters requires BSL-3

C - BSL-2

D - BSL-2

1)  National Research Council.  1997.  Occupational Health and Safety in the Care  and Use of Research Animals. National Academic Press, Washington DC.  Chapter-5, p. 73.
2)  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Biosafety in Microbiological and  Biomedical Laboratories, 5th ed.  2007.  U.S. Government Printing Office,  Washington, DC. P. 216.
Domain 5, Secondary Species- Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

33

Identify this lesion in a rat, and list the strains most commonly affected.

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Chromophobe adenoma of the pituitary

In aged Sprague-Dawley, Wistar, and F-344

Most originate from pars distalis.  Carcinomas also occur but with much less frequency.  Clinical signs when they occur may cause hydrocephalus.

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 4 – Biology and Diseases of Rats, p. 155.
2) Percy DH and Barthold SW.  2007.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd edition.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa.  Pp. 173 – 174
Domain 1; Primary species – Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

34

What is the genotype of the pictured mouse at each of the 5 coat color genes?

 

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agouti phenotype:  A/A, Tyrp1+/Tyrp1+, Tyr+/Tyr+, Myo5a+/Myo5a+, Oca2+/Oca2+

A/A = agouti

a/a = black (non-agouti)

Tyrp1b/Tyrp1b = brown

Tyrc/Tyrc = albino (masks all other coat color genes)

Myo5ad/Myo5ad = dilute (modifier gene)

Oca2p/Oca2p = pink-eyed and diluted coat color

A/A, Tyrp1b/Tyrp1b = cinnamon

a/a, Tyrp1b/Tyrp1b = chocolate

1) Lynn Lamorequx et al, 2010.  The Colors of Mice:  A Model Genetic Network. Wiley Blackwell. 
2) Flurkey et all, 2009.  The Jackson Handbook on Genetically Standardized mice.   The Jackson Laboratories.  P.22
Domain 4; Primary Species – Mouse 

 

35

A 1-year-old Saimiri sciureus has a history of diarrhea that is occasionally bloody, anorexia and vomiting.  A colon biopsy is done and the following is seen on histology.  What is the most likely diagnosis?

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Entamoeba histolytica

1)  Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 16 – Nonhuman Primates, pg 758.
2) Ulrich R, Boer M, Herder V, Spitzbarth I, Hewicker-Trautwein M, Baumga§rtner W,Wohlsein P. Epizootic fatal amebiasis in an outdoor group of Old World monkeys. J Med Primatol. 2010. 39(3):160-5. Doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0684.2010.00405.x. Epub 2010 Feb 19. PubMed PMID: 20202078.
Domain 1; Secondary species- Marmoset/Tamarins (Callitrichidae)

36

What is the genus and species and common uses in research?  Gestation? Age at first breeding?

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Cynomys ludovicianus

Biliary physiology and gallstone formation.  Accessible gall bladder at ventral surface of right median liver lobe.  Induced by cholesterol feeding.

Model of antibiotic-induced diarrhea.  Cefoxitin induces C. difficile cecitis and prarie dogs have a more chronic disease course than other animal species.

2 years at first breeding.  Gestation 34-37 days.

 

37

According to the Guide for Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, how often should this enclosure accessory be sanitized?  What wash and rinse temperature is recommended for effective disinfection?

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At least every two weeks

143-180o F (the traditional 180o F temperature requirement for rinse water referes to the water in the tank or sprayer manifold)

38

What is the host range for this organism?  Describe salient features of infection in each.

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Mice, Rat, Rabbit, Gerbil, Guinea Pig, Hamster, cats, dogs, horses, NHPs, humans, white-footed Deer mouse (Peromyscus)

Mice

  • Outbreaks may be explosive
  • Mortality is usually high, mordbidity can be high or low
  • C57BL/6 more resistant, DBA/2 more susceptible
  • NK cell depletion made B6 more susceptible but not DBA
  • Neutrophil depletion made both more susceptible
  • Macrophage depletion did NOT affect susceptibility
  • IL-12 is elevated in disease, and IL-12 neutralization made both more susceptible
  • Athymic nudes more susceptible but role of T cells unclear

Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)

  • Most frequently described  natural fatal infectious disease of gerbils
  • More susceptible than immunosuppressed mice, and have been used as sentinels

Rat

  • Usually clinically silent; nonspecific signs or death with no clinical signs possible

Rabbit

  • Profuse, watery diarrhea, anorexia, dehydration, staining of hindquarters, death within 1-2 days
  • Acute outbreaks mortality up to 90%

39

The above zebrafish system is an example of what type of watering system?

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Recirculating system

1) Koerber AS and Kalishman J, 2009. Preparing for a Semiannual IACUC Inspection of a Satellite Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Facility.  JAALAS. (48)1:65-75.
2)  Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd ed.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  Chapter-20, p.888-889.
Domain 4, Secondary Species- Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

40

Describe the type of anesthetic circuit diagrammed.

 

 

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Mapleson-A or Magill nonrebreathing circuit.

The Lack system is a variation on this circuit type where the relief valve is located adjacent to the fresh gas entry point. 

Very efficient for spontaneous breathing because alveolar gas is eliminated early during expiration.  Less efficient for assisted or controlled ventilation, and should not be used with some mechanical ventilators.

1)  Flecknell P. 2009. Laboratory Animal Anesthesia, 3rd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 2 – Anesthesia, p 34.
2) Fish RE, Brown MJ, Danneman PJ, Karas AZ, eds. 2008. Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, 2nd edition. Elsevier Inc., San Diego, CA. Chapter 5 – Anesthesia Delivery Systems, p. 144.
Domain 2 

 

 

41

Describe the type of anesthetic circuit diagrammed.

 

 

 

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Mapleson-D nonrebreathing circuit.  Parallel form is shown (vs coaxial)

Less eficient than Mapleson-A for spontaneous breathing.

Fresh gas flows of 100-130 cm3/kg/min, with a minimum flow of 0.5 lpm, have been recommended for small animals, although higher flows may be needed in patients with increased carbon dioxide production.

Fish RE, Brown MJ, Danneman PJ, Karas AZ, eds. 2008. Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, 2nd edition. Elsevier Inc., San Diego, CA. Chapter 5 – Anesthesia Delivery Systems, p. 144.
Domain 2 

 

 

42

Describe the type of anesthetic circuit diagrammed.

 

 

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Mapleson-E nonrebreathing circuit.

Functions much like a Mapleson-D but without the reservoir bag.  Without the bag, it is not well suited for assisted ventilation.  Some rodent anesthesia machines use a parallel or coaxial Mapleson-D circuit, omitting the reservoir bag and APL valve.  In this form, it is a Mapleson-E circuit.

Fish RE, Brown MJ, Danneman PJ, Karas AZ, eds. 2008. Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, 2nd edition. Elsevier Inc., San Diego, CA. Chapter 5 – Anesthesia Delivery Systems, p. 144.
Domain 2 

 

43

Describe the type of anesthetic circuit diagrammed.

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Mapleson-F nonrebreathing circuit.

The Ayre's T-tube (rightmost piece) is the classic example but, it is seldom used for inhalation anesthesia.  The Jackson-Rees modification (not pictured) is commonly used, and is similar to a Mapleson-E but a reservoir bag is added with provisions for scavenging at the bag tail.

44

Describe the type of anesthetic circuit diagrammed.

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Bain nonrebreathing circuit - the coaxial version of a Mapleson-D

45

What is the name and function of the top piece of equipment?  What is the function of the piece of equipment below it?

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Ayre's T-tube - by itself is a Mapleson-E circuit

The reservoir bag has a modification to allow scavenging of waste gas at the tail of the bag. The combination of the Ayre's T-tube and the scavenging reservoir bag is known as the Jackson-Rees modification or Mapleson-F.

46

Describe the equipment shown.

 

 

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A modified Mapleson-D (or Bain) arm/adaptor with a positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) valve between the manometer and APL valve.

The purpose of adding a PEEP valve is to prevent inadvertent barotrauma due to failure to open the APL valve after delivering a breath.

 

 

47

Describe the equipment shown.

 

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Mapleson-D or Bain adaptor.

The slotted chrome cap between the manometer and the APL valve covers  a mounting port for an optional ventilator/bag slector valve.

 

48

What is the ID number for the mouse shown below? 

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223

1)  Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 23 – Techniques of Experimentation, p. 1007.
2)  http://www.currentprotocols.com/protocol/im0105
Domain 4; Primary Species – Mouse (Mus musculus)
NOTE:  There are other ear punch schemes.

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49

A researcher wishes to use this drug in a mouse study.  What pertinent regulatory and animal health issues should you discuss with them?

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There is no pharmaceutical grade available therefore, scientific justification must be provided and approved by IACUC.

Not a controlled substance.

Animals may have adverse effects to the toxic  by-products, including dibromoacetaldehyde (DBA).  These include acute inflamatory changes, local irritation, fibrous adhesions in the abdominal cavity, and mortality.  It is therefore only recommended for acute terminal studies when given IP.

If used, it should be dissolved only in amyl alcohol, be filtered to ensure sterility, and protect solution from light.

1.) Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 8th edition. 2011. National Research Council: Washington, D.C. Chapter 2- Animal Care and Use Program,  p. 31.
2.) Public Health Service (PHS) Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare, National Institutes of Health, August, 2002. Page 9.
Domain 5
3)  AALA pp 260-61, 42

50

Which strain of mouse, characterized by the large pronuclei of its zygotes, was most likely used for the procedure shown?

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FVB/N

1)  Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 28 – Transgenic and Knockout Mice, p. 1131.
2)  Nagy A., Gertsenstein M., Vintersten K., Behringer R., Manipulating the Mouse Embryo, 3rd edition. Coldspring Harbor, NY  2003.  Chapter 3 – Production of Transgenic and Chimeric Mice, p. 151.
Domain 3; Primary species – Mouse (Mus musculus)

51

An investigator wants your advice about using this drug.  What should you tell him?  What accounts for most of this drug's hypnotic action?

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It is a Schedule IV controlled substance.  No pharmaceutical grade is available.  Therefore, scientific justification and IACUC approval are required.

Chloral hydrate (trichloroacetaldehyde monohydrate) is sedative and hypnotic.  Is a gastric, perivascular, and peritoneal irritant.  Causes adynamic ileus, with morbidity and death, in rats and hamsters when given IP.  Therefore IP route cannot be recommended for survival procedures.

Most of drug is reduced by hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase to trichloroethanol, which is an active metabolite responsible for most of its hypnotic action.

1) Fish RE, Brown MJ, Danneman PJ, Karas AZ, eds.  2008.  Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, 2nd ed.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  Chapter 25 – Regulatory Issues, p. 574
2) http://www.fda.gov/regulatoryinformation/legislation/ucm148726.htm
Domain 5

52

Genus and species and main use in research?

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Heterocephalus glaber (Naked Mole Rat)

Model of aging

Only eusocial mammal

53

Genus and species and main use(s) in research?

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Mastromys albicaudatus (White-tailed rat)

Diabetes mellitus - spontaneously develop hyperglycemia, polyuria, glycosuria, ketonuria, and degenerative changes in islets; more common in males and not associated with obesity.  Hyperglycemia is most commonly seen (>170 mg/dl).

 

54

Genus and species and main use(s) in research?

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Chinchilla laniger

Long life span (12-20 years), auditory research

55

Genus and species and main use(s) in research?

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Dipodomys spp. (Kangaroo rat)

D. spectabilis and D. merriami most commonly used species.

Renal physiology and water conservation, disuse osteoporosis, marginal decompression sickness

Of note:  should not be be provided ad lib water

56

Genus and species an main use(s) in research?

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Peromyscus spp (Deer mouse)

P. maniculatus and P. leucopus most commonly used species.

Readily adapy to lab environment.  Susceptible to a variety of zoonotic  diseases.

 

57

What activity and equipment is shown, and how does it relate to corresponding PPE and BSL requirements?

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A centrifuge safety cup for centrifuging infectious material.

A centrifuge safety cup or sealed rotor heads are required for BSL-2, 3, and 4.  BSL-2 PPE would entail lab coat, gown, smock or uniform.  BSL-3 PPE entails solid-front.  BSL-4 would additionally require centrifugation within a Class III BSC and/or a positive-pressure air suit.  

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Biosafety in Microbiological and  Biomedical Laboratories, 5th ed.  2007.  U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. P. 34, Principles of Biosafety.
(safety centrifuge cup shown in picture).
Domain 5

58

C3H/HeSn-ash/+

coisogenic segregating inbred mutant strain carrying the ashen (ash) mutation

59

C57BL/6J-Tyrc-2J/+

Coisogenic segregating inbred mutant strain carrying the albino 2J mutant allele

60

AEJ/GnJ-ae/Aw-J

Inbred strain segregating for two alleles at the agouti gene

61

AKR.B6-H2b

Congenic inbred in which the b haplotype at the H2 complex was transferred from C57BL/6J (B6) to the AKR background

62

B6.Cg-m Leprdb/++

Congenic inbred strain in which the linked mutant genes misty (m) and diabetes (Leprdb) were transferred from multiple, mixed, or unknown genetic backgrounds to B6 and are carried in coupling.

63

B6.Cg-m +/+ Leprdb

Congenic inbred strain in which the m and Leprdb mutations are carried in repulsion.

64

BXD-1/Ty

Recombinant inbred (RI) strain number 1 in a set of RI strains derived from a C57BL/6J (B) female mated to a DBA/2J (D) male and made by Taylor

65

CcS1

 

Recombinant congenic (RC) strain number 1 in a set made by crossing the BALB/c (C) and STS (S) strains, backcrossing 1 or 2 times to BALB/c and then inbreeding as with RI strains.

 

66

CcS1(N4)

 

Recombinant congenic (RC) strain number 1 in a set made by crossing the BALB/c (C) and STS (S) strains, backcrossing N4 times to BALB/c and then inbreeding as with RI strains.

67

B.A-Chr 1

Chromosome substitution (CSS) or consomic strain in which Chr 1 from A/J has been transferred to the B6 background.

68

C57BL/6J-mtBALB/c

Conplastic strain with the nuclear genome of C57BL/6J and the cytoplasmic (mitochondrial) genome of BALB/c, developed by crossing male C57BL/6J with BALB/c , followed by repeated backcrossing of female offspring  to male C57BL/6J.

69

B6;129-Cftrtm1Unc

First targeted mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene created the the University of North Carolina and carried on a mixed B6 and 129 background.

70

B6.129-Myf5Myod

Congenic strain carrying a replacement or "knockin" in which the Myf5 gene was replaced with the Myod gene in 129 ES cells and backcrossed onto the B6 background.

71

FVB/N-TgN(MBP) 1Xxx

Transgene in which the human myelin basic protein (MBP) gene is inserted into the genome of the NIH (N) subline of the FVB strain originally maintained at the NIH.

72

FVB/N-mTg1Zzz

Insertional mutation caused by the Tg1Zzz transgene made on the FVB/N genetic background.

73

B6C3F1

F1 hybrid made by crossing C57Bl/6 female to a C3H male

74

B6EiC3-Ts65Dn

Strain maintained by backcrossing mice with the Ts65Dn chromosome aberration to F1 hybrid mice made by crossing females of the Eicher (Ei) subline of the C57BL/6 x C3H.

Note:  these are not true F1 hybrids

75

Hsd:ICR

ICR outbred stock maintained at Harlan (Hsd)

76

Pri:B6,D2-G#

Advanced intercross line (AIL) created at Princeton (Pri) from the inbred strains C57BL/6 x DBA/2; AIL are made similar to RI strains except mice are intercrossed, avoiding sibling matings, to increase the possibility of tightly linked genes.