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Flashcards in Univ of Arizona Mock Exam B Deck (74):
1

What is the mechanism of action for malignant hyperthermia/porcine stress syndrome?  Which breeds are most often affected?

A mutation in the calcium-release channel protein (ryanodine receptor [RYR]), which results in a hypersensitive triggering mechanism of the calcium-release channel in skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum in response to various stressors (e.g. gas anesthesia, environmental stress).

Stress-susceptible pigs also will overrespond with beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation, lower rates of lactate, alanine, and aspartate conversion to carbon dioxide by the liver, abnormal phosphorus metabolism, and much higher cortisol and thyroxine turnover rate.

It is an autosomal recessive mutation with variable penetrance.  Found most often in Landrace, Yorkshire, Duroc, Pietrain, Poland China.

LAM, p 662

2


What are the clinical and pathologic signs of porcine stress syndrome?

tachycardia, tachypnea, muscle rigidity, hyperthermia, metabolic acidosis, myoglobinemia, hyperkalemia, hyperglycemia, (nonrigid and normothermic forms have been described)

Early signs can include muscle and tail tremors, progressing to dyspnea, blanched and reddened areas on skin, cyanosis.

Pathology includes very rapid development of rigor mortis, pale muscle which are very soft to watery in texture, due to high lactic acid content.

LAM, p 662

3

63. Which artery is ligated to create myocardial infarction in the pig using a mid-sternotomy approach?

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Left anterior descending artery

Reference: Swindle MM. 2007. Swine in the Laboratory, 2rd edition. CRC press: Boca Raton.   Chapter 9- cardiothoracic and vascular surgery/chronic intravascular catheterization, p.242
Domain 3; Primary Species – Swine

4

64. What anesthetic combination has been occasionally associated with complications and mortality in rats when animals were premedicated with buprenorphine?

Ketamine/Medetomidine

a. Fish RE, Brown MJ, Danneman PJ, Karas AZ, eds.  2008.  Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, 2nd ed.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  Chapter 10 – Anesthesia and Analgesia for Laboratory Rodents, pp. 257-259.
b. Suckow MA, Weisbroth SH, Franklin CL, eds.  2006.  The Laboratory Rat, 2nd edition.  Elsevier Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 19 – Anesthesia and Analgesia, p. 656.
Domain 2; Primary Species – Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

5

65. Which rat strain is the appropriate control for the spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rat?

The inbred SHR was derived from an outbred colony of Wistar Kyoto rat, but the use of the WKY as a normotensive control has been rightfully questioned since it was not fully inbred before being distributed to the U.S. and DNA fingerprinting reveals only about 50% homology between SHR and WKY.

Other normotensive strains are likely more suitable as controls.

References: Suckow MA, Weisbroth SH, Franklin CL, eds. 2006. The Laboratory Rat.  2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 23 - Spontaneous, Surgically, and Chemically Induced Models of Disease, pp. 717-718.
Domain 3; Primary Species – Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

6

List rat strains which are spontaneously hypertensive.

  1. SHR
  2. GH (Genetically Hypertensive)
  3. FHH (Fawn Hooded Hypertensive)
  4. LH (Lyon Hypertensive)
  5. SBH (Sabra Hypertension-prone)
  6. MHS (Milan Hypertensive Strain)

References: Suckow MA, Weisbroth SH, Franklin CL, eds. 2006. The Laboratory Rat.  2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 23 - Spontaneous, Surgically, and Chemically Induced Models of Disease, pp. 717-718.
Domain 3; Primary Species – Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

7

Describe the genetic inheritance and phenotype of the SHR rat.

  • polygenic with at least 3 major genes involved
  • Develop SBP of 150 mm Hg by 10 weeks of age
  • insulin resistance

8

66. Which of the following is FALSE regarding recirculating systems for aquatic housing?

a. Water is filtered before it returns to housing tanks in recirculating systems
b. Disease outbreaks are easier to contain in recirculating systems than in static systems
c. Recirculating systems have limited water usage compared to flow-though systems
d. Recirculating systems are preferable to static systems for long-term housing of fish
e. Water quality in recirculating systems must be monitored and adjusted as needed
 

b. Disease outbreaks are easier to contain in recirculating systems than in static systems

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 17 – Biology and Diseases of Amphibians, p. 798.
2) Koerber and Kalishman. 2009. Preparing for a semiannual IACUC inspection of a satellite zebrafish (Danio rerio) facility. JAALAS 48(1):65-75.
Domain 4; Secondary Species – Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

9

According to the 2007 AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia, decapitation and pithing of conscious frogs are considered to be which of the following methods of euthanasia?

a.   Acceptable
b.   Restricted application
c.    Unacceptable
d.  Conditionally acceptable
 

d. Conditionally acceptable

1) American Veterinary Medical Association.  2007.  AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia (Formerly Report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia), pp. 20, 28 (http://www.avma.org/issues/animal_welfare/euthanasia.pdf).
2) Silverman J, Suckow M, Murthy S.  2007. The IACUC Handbook, 2nd Edition. CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL. Chapter 17 – Euthanasia, p. 308.
Domain 5; Secondary Species – African Clawed Frog (Xenopus spp.)

10

69. What is the vector of Mycoplasma haemomuris (formerly Hemobartonella muris) in rats?

Polyplax spinulosa

Whereas the vector for Mycoplasma coccoides in mice is Polyplax serrata (pictured).

1) Baker DG, ed. 2007. Flynn’s Parasites of Laboratory Animals, 2nd edition. Blackwell Publishing, Iowa, USA. Chapter 11 – Parasites of Rats and Mice, p. 353.
2) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 4 – Biology and Diseases of Rats, p. 151.
Domain 1; Primary Species – Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

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11

70. Which of the following zoonoses is not transmitted by this species? 

a. Salmonella spp
b. Rodentolepis nana (also called Hymenolepis nana)
c. Leptospira spp
d. Giardia spp
e. Balantidum coli

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e. Balantidum coli

Balantidium coli has a worldwide distribution and is
common in domestic swine, which generally are regarded as the main reservoir for human infection. Nonhuman primates also can harbor the organism enterically (Fox and others 1984).

Reference: Institute for laboratory animal research, National research council. 1997.  Occupational health and safety in the care and use of laboratory animals, National Academy Press: Washington D.C. p. 65-105
Domain 5; Tertiary Species – Other Rodents

12

What is the reservoir for Entamoeba histolytica?

Humans serve as the reservoir for Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amebiasis, although nonhuman-primate infections have been recorded (Fox and others 1984). The importance of nonhuman primates as a reservoir host appears to have diminished in recent years.

Occ Health and Safety. p98

13

What is the defiitive host of Toxoplasma gondii, and what are the zoonotic implications?

Wild and domestic felines are the only definitive hosts of this organism; they are infected by one another or through predation of an intermediate host, and they support all phases of the T. gondii life cycle in their intestinal tract, although numerous other tissues are also involved in feline toxoplasmosis.

Intermediate hosts, including humans, can contract the infection from oocysts, which are present only in materials contaminated by cat feces, -or- by ingesting infectious bradyzoites or cystozoites encysted in the tissues of another intermediate host.

Toxoplasma infection can have severe consequences in pregnant women and immunologically impaired people. In a pregnant woman with a primary infection, rapidly dividing tachyzoites can circulate in the bloodstream and produce a transplacental infection of the fetus. In early pregnancy, the fetal infection can result in death of the fetus or chorioretinitis, brain damage, fever, jaundice, rash, hepatosplenomegaly, and convulsions at birth or shortly thereafter.

Primary infection in immunosuppressed people can be characterized by maculopapular rash, pneumonia, skeletal myopathy, myocarditis, brain involvement, and death.

14

What laboratory conditions are required for naturally or experiemntally infected animals with Shigella?

ABSL-2

Occ Health and Safety, p 94

15

What laboratory conditions are recommended for activities using natural or experimental infection of Salmonella?

ABSL-2

16

What laboratory conditions are recommended for natural or experimental infections with Campylobacter?

ABSL-2

17

What laboratory conditions are recommended for animal studies involving Brucella canis?

ABSL-3

Also, for B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis.

18

What laboratory conditions are recommended for animal studies involving Yersinia pestis?

ABSL-2

19

What laboratory conditions are recommended for Streptobacillus moniliformis?

Training of proper animal-handling techniques is critical.

20

What laboratory conditions are recommended for animal studies involving Coxiella burnetii?

C. burnetii is a select agent.

BSL-2 practices and facilities are recommended for nonpropagative laboratory procedures, including serological examinations and staining of impression smears.

BSL-3 practices and facilities are recommended for activities involving the inoculation, incubation, and harvesting of embryonated eggs or cell cultures, the necropsy of infected animals and the manipulation of infected tissues. Experimentally infected animals should be maintained under ABSL-3 because infected rodents may shed the organisms in urine or feces.

A specific plaque-purified clonal isolate of an avirulent (Phase II) strain (Nine Mile) may be safely handled under BSL-2 conditions.

21

Which of the following species is commonly used as a model of respiratory syncytial virus and human adenoviral pneumonia?

 

a. Meriones unguiculatus
b. Oryzomys palustris
c. Peromyscus leucopus
d. Sigmodon hispidus
e. Zygodontomys brevicauda

 

d. Sigmodon hispidus

Meriones unguiculatus (Mongolian gerbil) - Wide variety of parasitic research such as Giardia, Babesia, Strongyloides, Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Capillaria, Wucheria, Onchocerca, Loa loa, Echniococcus, Taenia, Schistosoma, Paragonimus.  Only viral disease model is Rift Valley Fever virus.

Oryzomys palustris (Rice rat) - No viral disease research. Spontaneous periodontal disease, drug research, vitamin E, photoperiod and pineal gland melatonin on reproduction.

Peromyscus leucopus (White-footed deer mice) - Genetics, physiology, aging, cataracts, behavior. Susceptible to variety of zoonoses: sin nombre, other hantaviruses, vesicular stomatitis virus, Lyme, ehrlichia, babesia, trypanosoma, tularemia.

Zygodontomys brevicauda (Cane mice) - arboviruses like Yellow Fever, rodent paramyxoviruses like Nariva virus, VEE, rhabdovirus like Cocal virus, natural host of Guanarito virus which causes Venezuelan Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF).

Reference: Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 7 – Biology and Diseases of Other Rodents, pp. 266, 268-269, 270, 275-276
Domain 3; Tertiary Species – Other Rodents

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22

Which of the following is TRUE with respect to the feeding of zebrafish?

 

a. Commercial dry diets are not readily consumed by larval stages
b. Ciliated protozoans (such as Paramecium) are of no use for larval stages
c. Freshly hatched nauplii of brine shrimp are of no use for larval stages
d. Commercial flakes or pellets do not normally offer a complete and balanced diet
 

a. Commercial dry diets are not readily consumed by larval stages

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 19 – Biology and Management of the Zebrafish, p. 874. 
2) Ostrander G, ed. 2000.  The Laboratory Fish.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 3 – Diet, pp. 68-69.
Domain 4; Secondary Species – Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

23

At what age can zebrafish be transitioned to commercial dry flake food?

Young fish up to 10-14 days should consume a diet exclusively of Paramecium and/or brine shrimp, and can be transitioned to dry feed at 10-21 days of age.

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 19 – Biology and Management of the Zebrafish, p. 874. 
2) Ostrander G, ed. 2000.  The Laboratory Fish.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 3 – Diet, pp. 68-69.
Domain 4; Secondary Species – Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

24

How much should fish be fed at each feeding?  What is the rationale for this guideline?

Fish should not be fed more than they can consume in 3-5 minutes.  Uneaten food decays and is a major source of nitrogenous waste in the water system.

LAM, p 874

25

According to the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations, all of the following statements apply to animal housing facility inspections EXCEPT?

 

a.   The IACUC must conduct inspections of facilities at least once every 6 months
b.   No IACUC member can be excluded if they wish to participate
c.   Ad hoc consultants may be used for facility inspections
d.  Animal study areas where USDA-covered species are held for more than 12 hours must be inspected
e. Subcommittees assigned to specific facilities must contain at least one IACUC member
 

e. Subcommittees assigned to specific facilities must contain at least one IACUC member is incorrect

Subcommittees must contain at least two IACUC members.

1) Applied Research Ethics National Association (ARENA) and Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW).  2002.  Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Guidebook.  2nd Edition.  OLAW: Bethesda, MD.  Section B.1 Program and Facility Review, pp. 37-39.
2) Animal Welfare Regulations, CFR Title 9, Chapter 1, Subchapter A, Part 2 – Regulations, Subpart C – Research Facilities, §2.31 Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC), (11-05 Edition, p. 33)
Domain 5

26

74. The fecal output scoring system pictured below was used to evaluate what in rabbits?

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Pain assessment

1) Fish, R.E., Brown, M. J., Danneman, P.J and Karas, A.Z, eds. 2008 Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, 2nd ed. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. Ch 11 – Anesthesia and Analgesia in Rabbits, pp. 324.
2) Weaver et al.  2010.  A model for clinical evaluation of perioperative analgesia in rabbits JAALAS 49(6):845- 851.
Domain 2; Primary Species - Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

27

Interstitial cell tumors are most commonly found in aged rats in which of the following strains?

F-344

Interstitial cell tumors occur in about 80% of aged F-344 rats.  They are of Leydig cell origin.

LAM, p 155

 

28

Pictured is a rat brain.  What two strains are most likely? Sex differences?

Q image thumb

Pituitary adenoma

Sprague-Dawley (75% incidence) or F-344 (20% incidence)

Females more likely (67 vs 83% incidence in SD; 16 vs 20% in F-344)

LAM, p 154-55

29

Which of the following terms refers to the condition when pain is induced by a non-noxious stimulus?

 

a.    Hyperalgesia
b.   Allodynia
c.    Subanalgesia
d.  Hypersensitivity
e.    Sensitization
 

b. Allodynia

Hyperalgesia - an exaggerated response to a stimulus that woiuld normally be painful

Hypersensitivity - reduced threshold to noxious stimuli

Summation - increasing pain with repeated stimuli of the intensity

1) Curtin CI et al. 2009. Evaluation of buprenorphine in a postoperative pain model in rats. Comp Med 59(1):60-71.
2) Fish RE, Brown MJ, Danneman PJ, Karas AZ, eds.  2008.  Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, 2nd ed.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA. Chapter 1 – Anatomy, Physiology, and Effects of Pain, pp. 4-5.
Domain 2

30

What diet is fed to the Dahl/SS rat to enhance their development of hypertension and renal failure?

High sodium

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 4 – Biology and Diseases of Rats, p. 152. 
2) Suckow MA, Weisbroth SH, Franklin CL, eds.  2006.  The Laboratory Rat, 2nd edition.  Elsevier Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 23 – Spontaneous, Surgically And Chemically Induced Models of Disease, p. 719.
3) http://www.criver.com/en-US/ProdServ/ByType/ResModOver/ResMod/Pages/DahlSSRat.aspx 
Domain 3; Primary Species – Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

31

Mechanism of action and pharmacologic effect in rats and mice?

Q image thumb

alpha-2 adrenergic agonist

Analgesia has been demonstrated in a variety of species, including rats and mice.

Acute reversible corneal dessication and lens opacity in rats and mice.

Hyperglycemia, reduced insulin secretion, increased GH, decreased ADH increased prolactin, altered testosterone in rats following decapitation.

32

Effects in rhesus monkeys?

 

Q image thumb

No effect on respiratory rate or blood gas values in rhesus.

Hypotension, bradycardia, decreased rectal temperature.

 

33

Effects in guinea pigs?

 

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Decreases arterial pressure at low doses in guinea pigs.

 

34

Uterine effects?

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Increased uterine pressure in dogs, goats, horses, cows.

35

Pharmacalogic effect in rodents and rabbits?

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Antinociceptive in rats and mice.

Very low doses anxiolytic in mice.

Dose-dependent sedation and loss of righting in rats.

Antinociception and sedation is inconsistent in rabbits, guinea pigs and hamsters.

1) Fish, R.E., Brown, M. J., Danneman, P.J and Karas, A.Z, eds. 2008 Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, 2nd ed. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. Chapter 2- Pharmacology of Injectable Anesthetics, Sedatives, and Tranquilizers, pp 50-52.

36

Several chickens present with sinusitis and conjunctivitis. On necropsy, the larynx and trachea are acutely inflamed and filled with blood clots or caseous cores. Histopathology of the trachea reveals intranuclear inclusion bodies in the epithelial tags pulled from the necrotic lining. Which of the following diseases is likely the cause of these findings? 

 

a.   Infectious bronchitis
b.   Newcastle disease
c.   Avian chlamydiosis
d.   Infectious laryngotracheitis
e.   Pullorum disease
 

d. Infectious laryngotracheitis

1) http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/206700.htm
2) http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/204102.htm&word=Pullorum%2cdisease
3) http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/201700.htm&word=Avian%2cchlamydiosis
4) http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/203702.htm&word=Newcastle%2cdisease
5) http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/206500.htm&word=Infectious%2cbronchitis
Domain 1; Tertiary Species - Chickens (Gallus domestica)

37

Who is responsible for assigning a laboratory registration, a key feature of mouse and rat nomenclature that contains one to five letters and identifies the institute, laboratory, or investigator that produced and/or maintains a particular animal strain?

Institute for Laboratory Animal Research

1) International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice and Rat Genome and Nomenclature Committee. Guidelines for Nomenclature of Mouse and Rat Strains. October 2011.
(http://www.informatics.jax.org/mgihome/nomen/strains.shtml#labcodes)
2) http://dels.nas.edu/global/ilar/Lab-Codes
Domain 3; Primary Species – Mouse (Mus musculus) and Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

38

What is the minimum daily maintenance requirement of ascorbic acid in guinea pigs?

10 mg/kg

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 6 – Biology and Diseases of Guinea Pigs, p. 209.
2) Harkness JE, Turner PV, VandeWoude S, Wheler CL. 2010. Harkness and Wagner’s Biology and Medicine of Rabbits and Rodents, 5th ed. Wiley-Blackwell: Ames, IA. Chapter 2 – Biology and Husbandry, p. 51.
Domain 4; Secondary Species - Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus)

39

Under Good Laboratory Practice for Nonclinical Laboratory Studies (CFR 21, Part 58), what is considered the study initiation date?

Date the protocol is signed by the study director

Reference: 21 CFR Part 58 - Good Laboratory Practice for Nonclinical Laboratory Studies, Subpart A – General Provisions, §58.3 (o) Definitions
Domain 5

40

Which species has been used to study renal physiology water conservation and behavior?

Q image thumb

c. Kangaroo rat (Dipodymys spectabilis)

Reference: Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 7 – biology and disease of other rodents, p. 259.
Domain 3; Tertiary Species – Other Rodents

41

Pneumocystis infection in immunocompromised mice typically include all of the following clinical signs EXCEPT?

 

a. Hunched posture
b. Diarrhea
c. Dyspnea
d. Wasting
e. Dry, scaly skin
 

b. Diarrhea

1) Percy DH and Barthold SW.  2007.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd ed.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa.  Chapter 1 – Mouse, p.83.
2) Harkness JE and Wagner JE. 1995.  The Biology and Medicine of Rabbits and Rodents, 4th Ed. Wilkins and Wilkins: Media, PA.  Chapter 5 – Specific Diseases and Conditions, p. 275.
3) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 3 – Biology and Diseases of Mice, p. 96.
Domain 1; Primary Species – Mouse (Mus musculus)

42

Which of the following systems is used to ensure that a specific E cylinder or tank of compressed gas is mounted on an anesthetic machine or attached to a separate regulator by means of a yoke assembly?

 

a.   Ball and chain system
b.   Tine and twine yoke assembly
c.   Pin index safety system
d.   Cylinder cog and diaphragm assembly
e.   Lug nut safety valve
 

c.   Pin Index Safety system

1) Fish RE, Brown MJ, Danneman PJ, Karas AZ, eds.  2008.  Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, 2nd ed.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  Chapter 5 - Analgesia Delivery Systems, p. 128.
2) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pin_Index_Safety_System
Domain 2

43

Which of the following injectable anesthetics is considered to be a steroidal anesthetic agent?

 

a.  α-chloralose
b.  Alphaxolone-alphadolone
c.  Choral hydrate
d. Etomidate
e. Urethane
 

b. Alphaxolone-alphadolone

Reference: Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  Chapter 22 – Preanesthesia, Anesthesia, Analgesia, and Euthanasia, p. 959.

44

Rat models of temporal lobe epilepsy include all of the following EXCEPT?

 

a. Neonatal hypothermia
b. Neonatal hyperthermia
c. Neonatal hypoxia +/- ischemia
d. Percussive brain injury
e. Tetanus toxin
 

a.  Neonatal hypothermia

Reference: Buckmaster PS.  2004.  Laboratory animal models of temporal lobe epilepsy.  Comp Med 54(5):473-485.

45

Which of the following drugs should be used with caution in experimental stroke models?

 

a. Propofol and barbiturates
b. Halothane and ketamine
c. Dexemedetomidine and ioflurane
d. Isoflurane and ketamine
 

d. Isoflurane and ketamine

Reference: Karmarkar et al. 2010. Considerations for the use of anesthetics in neurotoxicity studies. Comp Med 60(4):256–262.
Domain 3 

46

What type of maze would be considered the “dry” version of the Morris Water Maze used to test memory and spatial learning with visual cues (see figure)?

Q image thumb

Barnes Maze

1) Pritchett K and Mulder GB. 2003. T, radial arm, and Barnes mazes. JAALAS. 42(3): 53-55.
2) Holmes A et al. 2002. Behavioral profiles of inbred strains on novel olfactory, spatial and emotional tests for reference memory in mice. 1(1): 55-69.
Domain 3

47

What animal biosafety level (ABSL) practices are recommended for personnel working with caged birds naturally or experimentally infected with Psittacosis (C. psittaci) strains of avian origin?

ABSL3

References: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and National Institutes of Health.  2007.  Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories.  5th ed.  U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C.   Section VIIIA – Bacterial Agents, p. 33 (http http://www.cdc.gov/biosafety/publications/bmbl5/BMBL5_sect_VIII_a.pdf).
Domain 5; Tertiary Species – Other Birds

48

Which of the following organizations communicates legislative information and provides members with summaries, or  full texts of bills, legislative history and trends, and listings of pending legislation regarding regulation of the care and use of laboratory animals?

 

a.    ILAR
b.   APHIS
c.    NABR
d.   PRIM&R
e.    AALAS
 

c. NABR

1) http://www.nabr.org/About_NABR/Member_Services.aspx
2) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Association_for_Biomedical_Research
Domain 6

49

Less than 0.5 cm.  Identify genus and species, host range, and life cycle.

Q image thumb

Rodentolepis nana

Infects rats, mice, humans.

Life cycle is direct or indirect.  Only cestode known to not require an intermediate host. Liberated oncospheres penetrate intestinal villi and develop into cercocytis stage before reemerging  in to lumen 10-12 days later.  Adult attaches to intestinal mucosa and grows to adult in about 2 weeks.  Entire cycle from ingestion to patency is 20-30 days.

LAM, p 100

50

Blood smear from a guinea pig.  Function of the center cell.

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Foa-Kurloff cell - Estradiol-dependent mononuclear leukocyte unique to the guinea pig.

Found primarily in  thymus, sinusoids of spleen, liver, and lung, with increased numbers in peripheral circulation during pregnancy.  Also in placenta.

May function to prevent maternal rejection of fetal placenta.  Also, has NK cytotoxic activity in vitro and may be part of cancer resistance.

1) Percy DH and Barthold SW.  2007.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd ed.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa.  Chapter 5 – Guinea Pig, p. 218.
2) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 6 – Biology and Diseases of Guinea Pigs, p. 206.
Domain 1; Secondary Species – Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus)

51

All of the following species have been used in high fat diet-induced obesity studies potential models for metabolic syndrome EXCEPT?

 

a. Peromyscus californicus
b. Mastomys natalensis
c. Mesocricetus auratus
d. Oryctolagus cunniculus

 

b. Mastomys natalensis

1) Suckow MA, Weisbroth SH, Franklin CL, eds.  2006.  The Laboratory Rat, 2nd edition.  Elsevier Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 30 – Wild and Black Rats, pp. 868-869.
2) Gallaugher et al. 2009. Ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors reduce atherosclerosis in a double-injury rabbit model. Comp Med 59(6):567-572.
3) Guosheng et al. 2009. Insulin resistance in Insulin-resistant and diabetic hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) is associated with abnormal hepatic expression of genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. Comp Med 59(5):449-458.
4) Krugner-Higby et al. 2011. The effects of diet composition on body fat and hepatic steatosis in an animal (Peromyscus californicus) model of metabolic syndrome. Comp Med 61(1):31-38.
5) Neeb et al. 2010. Metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease in Ossabaw compared with Yucatan swine. Comp Med 60(4):300-315.
Domain 3; Tertiary Species – Other Rodents

52

Saimiri sciureus.  Etiologic agent responsible for lesions, host species?  aberrent species?  Clinical course in each?

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Saimiriine herpesvirus 1

Carried asymptomatically, or rarely oral vesicles and ulcers, by squirrel monkeys (host species).

In tamarins, marmosets, and owl monkeys, causes variable oral, labial, and dermal lesions.  Clinical signs include pruritus, anorexia, depression, and death within 24-48 hours.

53

This recently weaned rat was found dead with no premonitory clinical signs.  Which of the following is true regarding screening the rest of the rat colony, and other species, for the causative organism shown below?                                         
  
a. Latent infections with no accompanying clinical signs are lifelong
b. ELISA utilizing monovalent antigen may not detect seroconversion among different host species 
c. Sentinels exposed to soiled bedding of different species may generate false positive serologic testing
d. Positive ELISA results should be verified by culture of cecal contents

 

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b. ELISA utilizing monovalent antigen may not detect seroconversion among different host species

Serologic screening for C. piliforme is subject to false positives.  Disease provocation (e.g. cortisone) may be warranted to test subclinical animals.

1) Percy, DH, Barthold, SW.  2001.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits.  2nd edition.  Iowa State Press: Ames, IA.  Chapter 2 – Rat, pp. 122-23.
2) Fox, JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine.  2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 4 – Biology and Diseases of Rats, p. 137. 
Domain 1; Primary Species - Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

 

54

What best describes neurogenic pain?

Pain initiated or caused by a primary lesion, dysfunction or transitory perturbation in the central or peripheral nervous system.

1) Kohn et al. 2007. Guidelines for the assessment and management of pain in rodents and rabbits. JAALAS 46(2):97-108.
2) Fish RE, Brown MJ, Danneman PJ, Karas AZ, eds.  2008.  Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, 2nd ed.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  Chapter 3 – Anatomy, Physiology, and Effects of Pain, pp. 4-5, 16.
Domain 2

55

What is the genus and species of the animal models for African trypanosomiasis and also the effects of 6-methoxybenzoxazoline?

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Microtus montanus - montane vole

6-methoxybenzoxazoline alters sex ratio of litters in this species.

LAM, p 280

56

What is the function of the features structure on this xenopus frog (Xenopus laevis)?

 

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Mechanical sensing

Lateral line system composed of neuromasts which detect changes in water pressure and currents, and function inlocating prey.

1)  Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 17 Biology and Diseases of Amphibians, p. 804.
2) Winkelbaur R.  1989.  Development of the lateral line system in Xenopus.  Prog. Neurobio. 32(3):181-206.
Domain 1; Secondary Species - African clawed frog (Xenopus spp.)

 

57

Which of the following phases of SIV infection is characterized by a slight rebound in CD 4+ cells followed by a gradual decline?

a. Primary infection
b. Asymptomatic phase
c. Progenitor phase
d. Final phase

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b. Asymptomatic phase

1) Wachtman, et al. 2008.  Opportunistic infections in immunologically compromised nonhuman primates.  ILAR 49(2) 191.
2) Schenkel A, et al. 1999. Asymptomatic simian immunodeficiency virus infection decreases blood CD4+ T cells by accumulating recirculating lymphocytes in the lymphoid tissues. J Virology, Vol. 73, No. 1, p. 601-607
Domain 1; Primary Species- Macaques (Macaca spp.)

58

Which Class I MHC alleles have been associated with slower SIV progression, lower viral set points, or an increased likelihood of expressing and elite controller phenotype?

Mamu-A*01, Mamu-B*17, Mamu-B*08

NHP BB, vol 2, Diseases, p 67

59

How do Chinese- and Indian-origin rhesus macaques differ in SIV pathogenesis?

Compared to Indian-origin, Chinese origin demonstrate: 

  • lower viral loads
  • less prominent depletion of intestinal lymphocyte populations
  • stronger antibody response
  • prolonged survival

NHP BB, vol 2, Diseases, p 67

60

Describe the tropism of SIV and the cellular receptors involved.

Tropism for cells that express the CD4 molecule, which includes the helper-inducer subset of T cells, monocyte macrophages, and antogen-presenting dendritic cells.

Virus enters these permissive cells through interaction between viral envelope glycoprotein gp120, the CD molecule, and the CCR5 coreceptor.

NHP BB, vol 2, Diseases, p 65-66

61

How long is this lil' bugger's life cycle?

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23 days

Myobia musculi

1) Baker DG, ed. 2007. Flynn’s Parasites of Laboratory Animals, 2nd edition. Blackwell Publishing, Iowa, USA. Chapter 11 – Parasites of Rats and Mice, pp. 359-361.
2) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 3 – Biology and Diseases of Mice, p. 104.
3) Percy DH and Barthold SW.  2007.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd ed.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa.  Chapter 1 – Mouse, pp. 85-87.
4) Metcalf et al. 2011.  Effect of sampling strategy on the detection of fur mites within a naturally infested colony of mice (Mus musculus). JAALAS 50(3):337-343.
Domain 1; Primary Species – Mouse (Mus musculus)

62

What wild derived inbred mice are used in research to study polymorphisms and gene mapping due to large numbers of polymorphic differences from standard inbred laboratory mice?

Mus musculus castaneus & Mus spretus

LAM, p 36

63

The pictured equipment is used for what purpose?

 

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Maceration of day-old chicks and embryonated eggs

Maceration, via use of a specially designed mechanical apparatus having rotating blades or projections, causes immediate fragmentation and death of day-old poultry and embryonated eggs. A review of the use of commercially available macerators for euthanasia of chicks, poults, and pipped eggs indicates that death by maceration in day-old poultry occurs immediately with minimal pain and distress. Maceration is an alternative to the use of carbon dioxide for euthanasia of day-old poultry. Maceration is believed to be equivalent to cervical dislocation and cranial compression as to time element, and is considered to be an acceptable means of euthanasia for newly hatched poultry by the Federation of Animal Science Societies, Agriculture Canada, World Organization for Animal Health (OIE),and European Union.
Advantages—(1) Death is almost instantaneous. (2) The method is safe for workers. (3) Large numbers of animals can be killed quickly.
Disadvantages—(1) Special equipment is required.
(2) Macerated tissues may present biosecurity risks.
Recommendations—Maceration requires special equipment that must be kept in excellent working order. Chicks must be delivered to the macerator in a way and at a rate that prevents a backlog of chicks at the point of entry into the macerator and without causing injury, suffocation, or avoidable distress to the chicks before maceration.

1) 2007. AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia.  http://www.avma.org/issues/animal_welfare/euthanasia.pdf
2) http://viscon.eu/index.php?id=303
Domain 4

 

64

Which of the following is INCORRECT in regards to the annual report filed by an institution licensed under the Animal Welfare Act and Regulations?

 

a.   Report must be filed by December 1st of each year with the AC regional director
b.  Report must be signed and certified by the CEO or institutional official and the attending veterinarian
c.  Report must assure that each principal investigator has considered alternatives to painful procedures
d.  Report must state the location of all facilities where animals are housed or used in research
e.    Report must state the numbers of animals held for, but not yet used, in research
 

 

Incorrect:  b. Report must be signed and certified by the CEO or institutional official and the attending veterinarian

Correct:  Report must be signed and certified by the CEO or IO.

1) Animal Welfare Regulations, CFR Title 9, Chapter 1, Subchapter A, Part 2 – Regulations, Subpart C – Research Facilities, §2.36 Annual report (1-1-00 Edition, pp. 26-27)
2) Applied Research Ethics National Association (ARENA) and Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW).  2002.  Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Guidebook.  2nd Edition.  OLAW: Bethesda, MD.  Section C.1 Fundamental Issues, p. 173.
Domain 5

 

65

According to the Animal Welfare Act and regulations, these animals would require how much floor space in their primary enclosure?

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Gibbon pictured (Hylobates) - a brachiating species

AWA groups all brachiating species together for purposes of space requirements:  at least 25.1 ft2 and 84 in height.

1) Animal Welfare Regulations, CFR Title 9, Chapter 1, Subchapter A, Part 3 – Standards, Subpart D – Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Nonhuman Primates, §3.80 Primary enclosures (August 2002 Edition, p. 93-94)
Domain 5; Tertiary Species – Other Nonhuman Primates

66

Which of the following findings would be considered abnormal in rabbit urine?

 

a. Calcium oxalate crystals
b. Triple phosphate crystals
c. Reddish brown color
d. Calcium carbonate crystals
e. Urinary pH of 8.2
 

a. Calcium oxalate crystals

Rabbit normally contains high concentration of ammonium magnesium phosphate and calcium carbonate monohydrate, and the pH.

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002 Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 9 – Biology and Diseases of Rabbits, p. 333
2) Manning PJ, Ringler DH, Newcomer CE, eds.  1994.  The Biology of the Laboratory Rabbit, 2nd edition.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  Chapter 7 – Clinical Biochemistry and Hematology, pp.118-119.
3) Percy DH and Barthold SW.  2007.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd ed.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa.  Chapter 6 – Rabbit, p. 254
Domain 1; Primary Species - Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

67

Which of the following injectable anesthetics is carcinogenic and unsuitable for recovery procedures?

 

a. Alphaxolone-alphadolone
b. Chloral hydrate
c. Urethane
d. α-Chloralose
 

c. Urethane

alpha-chloralose is also not suitable for survival procedures (but not a carcinogen)
 
1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 22 – Preanesthesia, Anesthesia, Analgesia, and Euthanasia, p. 959.
2) Fish RE, Brown MJ, Danneman PJ, Karas AZ, eds.  2008.  Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, 2nd ed.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  Chapter – Pharmacology of Injectable Anesthetics, Sedatives, and Tranquilizers pp. 35-37, 43-44, 56.
Domain 2

68

Lumbar sympathectomy in experimental animals involves excision of which of the following?

 

Glossopharyngeal nerve
Pars distalis nervosa
Nucleus acumbens
Nucleus locularis
Hypogastric nerve
 

Hypogastric nerve

Reference: Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 23 - Techniques in Experimentation, pp. 1029-1031.
Domain 3

69

Fecal float from a baboon.  Genus and species.

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Trichuris trichiura

1)   Reichard MV, Wolf RF, Clingenpeel LC, Doan SK, Jones AN, and Gray KM. 2008. Efficacy of fenbendazole formulated in a commercial primate diet for treating specific pathogen-free baboons (Papio cynocephalus anubis) infected with Trichuris trichiura. JAALAS 47, p. 51.
2) Baker DG, ed. 2007. Flynn's Parasites of Laboratory Animals, 2nd edition. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA, Chapter 21 - Parasites of Non-Human Primates, pp. 714-715.
Domain 1; Secondary Species – Baboon (Papio spp.)

70

For what research purpose is a lumbar sympathectomy performed?

Has been used to treat human conditions like Raynaud's disease, arteriosclerosis, and thromboangiitis obliterans.

Has been used in swine to investigate the effect of vasospasm on restenosis following angioplasty.

Used in a a rat model of chronic limb ischemia, and in the rat model of neuropathic pain induced by ligation of the L5 spinal nerve.

LAM, p 1030

71

According to the Animal Welfare Act and regulations, a dog (24 inches in length from nose to base of tail and over 12 weeks of age) individually housed in a pen similar to the pictured (measurements in feet)

 

a. Must be provided the opportunity for exercise regularly.
b. Must be provided the opportunity for exercise at least daily.
c. Must be provided the opportunity for exercise at least weekly.
d. Does not need to be provided with any extra opportunities for exercise.
 

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d. Does not need to be provided with any extra opportunities for exercise.

(24 + 6)2 / 144 = 6.25 ft2

6.25 x 2 = 12.5 ft2

1) Animal Welfare Regulations, CFR Title 9, Chapter 1, Subchapter A, Part 3 – Standards, Subpart A – Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats, §3.8 Exercise for Dogs (August 2002 Edition, p. 62-63)
Domain 5; Primary Species – Dog (Canis familiaris)

72

Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding floor drains in rabbit rooms?

 

a. Floor drains should be at least 4 inches in diameter
b. Floor drains should be at least 6 inches in diameter
c. Floor drains should be at least 8 inches in diameter
d.   Floor drains are neither essential nor recommended
 

d. Floor drains are neither essential nor recommended

This is true for both rabbit and rodent rooms.

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 21 – Animal Facilities, p. 927.
2) Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. Chapter 5 – Physical Plant, p. 138.
Domain 4; Primary Species - Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

73

This NHP had a tuberculin test 24 hrs prior to this photo.  What grade reaction is this?

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Grade 4

74

Presumptive diagnosis?

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Treponema paraluis cuniculi

Diagnosis by demonstrating organisms in lesions.  Note characteristic spiral morphology.  Wet mounts of scarpings examined by darkfield microscopy pictured.

Of note:  T. cuniculi is closely related to cusative agent for human syphylis, T. pallidum.  The same serologic tests can be used to detect T. cuniculi.

LAM, p 343-34

 

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