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Flashcards in Univ of Arizona Mock Exam Deck (73):
1

Etiology?  Primary mode of transmission?  Primary site of infection?  How is diagnosis made?

 

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Pseudoloma neurophilia

Ingestion of spores is primary means of transmission

Xenomas (parasite-infected cells) primarily occur in CNS.  Inflammation is usually minimal.

Presumptive diagnosis on clinical signs.  Definitive diagnosis by finding characteristic spores in wet mounts or histology.  Microsporidian spores are birefringent, oval, usually with a prominent refractile vacuole.  Spores are Gram positive in tissue smears or histology.  Xenomas must be differentiated from lesions caused by Ichthyophthirius multifilis.

1) Baker DG, ed. 2007. Flynn’s Parasites of Laboratory Animals, 2nd edition. Blackwell Publishing, Iowa, USA. Chapter 7 – Parasites of Fishes, pp. 80-84.
2) Murray et al. 2011. Transmission, diagnosis, and recommendations for control of Pseudoloma neurophilia infections in laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio) facilities. Comp Med 61(4):322-329.
Domain 1; Secondary Species – Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

2

Etiology? Pathogenesis?  Diagnosis?

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Presumptive diagnosis is Ichthyophthirius multifilis (White Spot disease)

White spot is the trophont, encysted feeding stage.  This eventually breaks off and drops to bottom of aquarium and attaches to some substrate, now called a tomont.  It undergoes mitotic divisions to form hundreds of ciliated theronts that are released into the water to attach to a new host.

Definitive diagnosis is by observing distinctive horshoe-shaped macronucleus, and observing parasites under epithelium of gills or skin.

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3

What is the mechanism of action for propofol?  Species differences?  Side effects?  Immune sysytem effects?

GABAA agonist

Clearance in greyhounds slower than other breeds.  Less efective in rabbit than other species.  Repeated dosing in cats causes Heinz body formation.

Decreases cerebral oxygen consumption, reduces intracranial pressure, and has anticonvulsive activity.  Also a potent antioxidant, has anti-inflammatory properties, and is a brochodilator.

Attenuates proinflammatory cytokines, alters nitric oxide expression, and decreases neutrophil activation in a rat model of endotoxemia.

4

Which drugs are GABAA agonists?

 

  • Barbiturates (Thiopental, Thiamylal, Methohexital, Pentobarbital)
  • chloral hydrate
  • alpha-chlorulose
  • tribromoethanol (TBE)
  • propofol
  • metomidate
  • etomidate
  • Steroid anesthetics (alphaxalone, alphadolone)
  • Benzodiazepines

 

5

 Mechanism of action for acepromazine?  Side effects?  Species differences?

Acepromazine is a phenothiazine derivative which antagonizes D2 dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia and limbic portions of the forebrain.

Little direct evidence that acepromazine potentiates seizure activity, as is commonly thought.  Does cause hyperglycemia, reduced hematocrit, reduced gastric secretory activity.

IM chlorpromazine is contraindicated in rabbits due to severe myositis and paralysis.

6

How is the blood supply from the coronary artery of swine similar to that of humans?

It is right-side dominant and lacks preexisting collateral circulation.

This makes the coronary blood flow similar to 90% of that of the human population, unlike the dog.  The elctrophysioologic system is more neurogenic than myogenic, and there are more Purkinje fibers.  The left azygous (hemizygous) vein drains the intercostal vessels into the cornoary sinus unlike most other species.  This vessel may be ligated or blocked to provide total coronary vessel drainage into the coronary sinus.

Reference: Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 15 - Biology and Diseases of Swine, p. 618.
Domain 3; Primary Species – Pig (Sus scrofa)

7

4. Which of the following is the least likely cause of a positive tuberculin skin test result in a common marmoset?

 

a. Early-stage infection with measles virus
b. Prior Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination
c. Prior exposure to Freund complete adjuvant
d. Infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria
e. Trauma during injection
 

a. Early-stage infection with measles virus

Measles may result in false negative reactions due to immunosuppression.  Early or advanced tuberculosis may also result in false-negative reactions.

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 16 – Nonhuman Primates, p. 740
2) Bennett BT, Abee CR, Henrickson R, eds.  1998.  Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  Chapter 2 – Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, pp. 85-86.
3) Wachtman et al. 2011. Colonization with nontuberculous mycobacteria is associated with positive tuberculin skin test reactions in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Comp Med 61(3):278-284.
Domain 4; Secondary Species – Marmoset/Tamarins (Callitrichidae)

8

Which of the following parameters is least predictive for determining obesity and related health problems in this species?
                                                                                
a. BMI
b. Haemoglobin A1c levels
c. Abdominal skin fold thickness
d. Body weight
e. Serum fructosamine levels

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d. Body weight

1)  Bauer SA, Arndt TP, Leslie KE, Pearl DL, Turner PV. 2011. Obesity in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques: A comparative review of the condition and its implications for research. Comp Med. 61(6):514-526.
2)  SA Bauer, KE Leslie, DL Pearl, J Fournier, PV Turner. 2010. Retrospective case-control study of hyperglycemia in group-housed, mature female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). J Med Primatol, 39:408-416.
Domain 1; Primary Species

9

6. According to the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations, for what period of time must an official USDA tag be held after the death or euthanasia of a cat?

1 year

Reference:  Animal Welfare Act, 9 CFR Part 2 – Regulations, Subpart E – Identification of Animals, §2.55 (b) Removal and disposal of tags (1-1-01 Edition, p. 33).
Domain 5; Secondary Species – Cat (Felis domestica)

10

Which organization is composed of research professionals with a mission dedicated to balancing animal welfare and excellence in basic and applied scientific inquiry?

Scientists Center for Animal Welfare

1) Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council.  1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.  National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. Appendix B: Selected Organizations, pp. 108, 110-112
2) http://www.scaw.com/
3) http://www.aalas.org/resources/branches-affil.aspx 
Domain 6

11

The control of the following substance is administered and enforced by which agency(ies)?

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Administered by the Secretary of Health and Human Services and enforced by the Drug Enforcement Agency

1) Fish RE, Brown MJ, Danneman PJ, Karas AZ, eds. 2008. Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego CA. Chapter 25 – Regulatory Issues
Domain 5

12

10. Which of the following viruses causes disease with both zoonotic and anthroponotic forms in ferrets and humans?
a. Orthomyxovirus
b. Paramyxovirus
c. Parvovirus
d. Rhabdovirus
e. Rotavirus

a. Orthomyxovirus

Influenza is caused by an orthomyxovirus that is transmissable from humans to ferrets and ferrets to humans.  Human influenza viruses A and B are pathogenic to ferrets.  Ferrets are also susceptible to avian, phocine, equine, and swine influenza, although only swine influenza causes clinical signs.

Clinical signs appear 48 hours postinfection.  Diagnosis is based on typical clinical signs and recovery within 4 days.

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 13 – Biology and Diseases of Ferrets, pp.  498-501.
2) Quesenberry, KE, Carpenter, JW, eds.  Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents – Clinical Medicine and Surgery, 2nd edition.  Saunders, St. Louis, MO.  Chapter 7 – Respiratory Diseases, pp. 74-75.
Domain 1; Secondary Species – Ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

13

List some infectious disease research of this species.

 

 

 

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  • Respiratory infection with paramyxovirus
  • Respiratory syncytial virus
  • Parainfluenza 3
  • Measles
  • Human adenovirus
  • Only animal model of ocular adenovirus keratoconjunctivitis
  • Susceptibility to human adenovirus has led to their use in adenoviral-mediated gene therapy srtudies involving cystic fibrosis, erythropoiesis stimulation, cancer treatment such as cervical carcinoma
  • Scrub typhus
  • Screen antifilarial drugs
  • Leishmania donovani
  • Echinococcus multilocularis
  • Natural reservoir for Lyme disease, hantavirus, VEE

Cotton rat is pictured (Sigmodon hispidus)

1)  Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 7 – Biology and Diseases of Other Rodents, pp. 270-271.
2)  Suckow MA, Weisbroth SH, Franklin CL, eds.  2006.  The Laboratory Rat, 2nd edition.  Elsevier Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 30 – Wild and Black Rats, pp. 869-870
Domain 3; Tertiary Species – Other Rodents

 

14

12. The Interagency Research Animal Committee has recommended restricting use of which mouse identification method to situations where no other method of identifying the animals would be appropriate?

Toe clipping

The Guide says: "It may be the preferred method for neonatal mice up to 7 days of age as it appears to have few adverse effects on behavior and well-being at this age."

1) Final Rule: Good Laboratory Practice Regulations; Minor Amendments: Toe Clipping (http://awic.nal.usda.gov/final-rule-good-laboratory-practice-regulations-minor-amendment-toe-clipping)
2) Applied Research Ethics National Association (ARENA) and Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW).  2002.  Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Guidebook.  2nd Edition.  OLAW, Bethesda, MD.  Section B.2.c. Husbandry, pp. 45-46.
3) National Research Council.  2011.  Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 8th ed.  National Academies Press, Washington D.C.  Chapter 3 - Environment, Housing and Management, p. 75.  
Domain 4; Primary Species – Mice (Mus musculus)

15

The life cycle of this parasite may be complete in how many days?

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8-14 days

Myocoptes musculinus (female)

1) Metcalf P, Kelly A, Rice, KA, Wrighten R, Watson J. 2011 Effect of Sampling Strategy on the Detection of Fur Mites within a Naturally Infested Colony of Mice (Mus musculus) JAALAS 50(3): 337-343
2) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA. Chapter 3 – Biology and Diseases of mice, p. 104
Domain 1; Primary Species – Mus musculus

16

According to the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations, which of the following areas are exempt from inspection every 6 months by the IACUC?

 

a. Animal housing areas
b. Quarantine facilities
c. Animal areas containing free-living wild animals in their natural habitat
d. Animal study areas
e. Animal surgery areas
 

c. Animal areas containing free-living wild animals in their natural habitat

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 2 – Laws, Regulations, and Policies Affecting the Use of Laboratory Animals, pp. 21-22. 
2) Animal Welfare Act, 9 CFR Part 2 – Regulations, Subpart C – Research Facilities, §2.31(c)(3) Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).  (1-1-01 Edition, p. 21).
Domain 5

17

Which of the following laboratory animal species have hypsodontic molars?

 

a. Rats and mice
b. Gerbils and guinea pigs
c. Guinea pigs and rabbits
d. Mice and rabbits
 

c. Guinea pigs and rabbits

Note:  all rodents have hypsodontic incisors

1) Dontas et al. 2010. Malocclusion in aging Wistar rats. JAALAS 49(1):22-26
2) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 4 – Biology and Diseases of Rats, p. 124; Chapter 6 – Biology and Diseases of Guinea Pigs, p. 207; and Chapter 9 – Biology and Diseases of Rabbits, p. 331
3) Percy DH and Barthold SW.  2007.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd edition.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa. Chapter 1 – Mouse, p. 102; Chapter 2 – Rat, pp. 165; Chapter 4 – Gerbil, p. 213; Chapter 5 – Guinea Pig, p. 242; Chapter 6 – Rabbit, p. 303
Domain 1; Primary Species – Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), Secondary Species – Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus)

18

17. Which of the following drug classes are sedative hypnotics, have a very narrow therapeutic window, and have significant side effects in hamsters and gerbils?
a.   α2-adrenergic agonists
b.   Neuroleptics
c.   Barbiturates
d.   Dissociative agents 

c. Barbiturates

Pentobarbital (70 mg/kg IP) produces profound respiratory perturbations in hamsters, with decreased tidal and minute volumes, reduced breathing rate, and increased airway resistance.

Gerbils receiving 80 mg/kg pentobarbital exhibit profound hypothermia. 

Also, Marmota monax has profound cardiovascular depression with 30 mg/kg pentobarbital (and also with urethane, and chloralose/urethane)

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 22 – Preanesthesia, Anesthesia, Analgesia, and Euthanasia, pp.  957-959.
2) Fish RE, Brown MJ, Danneman PJ, Karas AZ, eds.  2008.  Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, 2nd ed.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  Chapter 11 – Anesthesia and Analgesia for Laboratory Rodents, pp. 280-281.
Domain 2; Secondary Species – Gerbil (Meriones spp.) and Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), Tertiary Species – Other Rodents

19

What is the major cause of morbidity and mortality of this species?

 

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Phodopus sungorus (Dwarf or Djungarian hamster)

High incidence of spontantaneous neoplasia (1-10%), with female being more susceptible.  

Adenocarcinoma of mammary glands, adenocarcinoma of lungs, SCC of skin on muzzle being top three.

Other fun facts:  Dwarf hamsters have most compressed reproductive cycle of any eutherian mammal.  They can mate on the day of parturition and deliver the second litter while weaning the first, within a 36-day time period. 4 day estrus cycle, 18 day gestation. 

 

20

According to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, when using the device pictured, all of the following are important guidelines EXCEPT:

 

a. Restraint devices should not be considered a normal method of housing, and must be justified in the animal use protocol
b. The period of restraint should be the minimum required to accomplish the research objectives
c. Animals to be placed in restraint devices should be given training (with positive reinforcement) to adapt to the equipment and personnel
d. Animals that fail to adapt to the device should receive retraining whenever possible
e. Provision should be made for observation of the animal at appropriate intervals, as determined by the IACUC
 

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d. Animals that fail to adapt to the device should receive retraining whenever possible

1) Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. 2011.  Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. p. 29.
2) http://www.unobv.com/Primate%20restrainer.html
Domain 5; Primary Species

21

Name two innate characteristics of this species that lend to major research application.

 

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  1. Incomplete Circle of Willis thereby making them a model of stroke since they're more susceptible to cerebral infarction following unilateral ligation of the common carotid artery.
  2. Have spontaneous epileptiform seizures which mimic human idiopathis epilepsy.  Seizure-sensitive and seizure-resistant strains have been bred.

Mongolian gerbil - Meriones unguiculatus

Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 7 – Biology and Diseases of Other Rodents, p. 275.
2) Percy DH and Barthold SW.  2007.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd edition.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa.  Chapter 4 – Gerbil, p. 207.
Domain 3; Secondary Species – Gerbil (Meriones spp.)

 

22

21. Why is it important to remove organic matter from water prior to chlorination?  

Chlorination of water containing organic matter results in the formation of by-products such as trihalomethanes, some of which, for example, chloroform, may be cytotoxic, mutagenic, and/or carcinogenic.  Therefore, chlorination of RO-treated water, which has fewer organic contaminants, is preferred.  Chlorination by-products may be present without on-site chlorination, as many municipal water supplies use chlorine as a disinfectant. Although RO treatment will remove some by-products, small-molecular-weight compounds may pass through the RO membrane and are best removed by absorption using activated carbon.

2) Fox JG, Barthold SW, Davisson MT, Newcomer CE, Quimby FW, Smith AL, eds.  2007.  The Mouse in Biomedical Research, 2nd edition, Volume 3 – Normative Biology, Husbandry, and Models.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 9 – Design and Management of Research Facilities for Mice, pp. 306-309.
Domain 4

23

You are presented with a mouse carrying a mutation in a gene whose function is unknown to you.  Which of the following databases WOULD NOT be useful in determining the function of the gene?

 

a.   OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man)
b.   PubMed
c.  Jackson Lab Mouse Genome Informatics site
d.   BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool)
e. Cochrane Library
 

e. Cochrane Library 

1) BLAST: http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi
2) JAX: http://www.informatics.jax.org/
3) PubMed:
4) OMIM: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim
5)  Cochrane Library: http://www.thecochranelibrary.com/view/0/index.html
Domain 5; Primary Species – Mouse (Mus musculus)

24

Tissue from an asymptomatic guinea pig.  Identify the tissue and etiology.  

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Salivary gland

Cavid Herpesvirus or guinea pig cytomegalovirus or salivary gland virus

Infection usually subclinical.  Diagnosis is made by identification of large, eosinophilic, usually intranuclear inclusion bodies in the ductal epithelial cells of the submaxillary salivary gland.  Inclusions form at 5 days up to 3 weeks post-exposure.  May also be seen in brain, lung, kidney, spleen, pancreas, thymus, and liver.

Percy, D. and Barthold, S.  2007. Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits 3rd ed.  Blackwell Publishing. Chapter 5 – Guinea Pig
2) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 6 – Biology and Diseases of Guinea Pigs, p. 221.
Domain 1; Secondary Species – Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus)

25

Which of the following types of viruses can potentially contaminate mouse gametes and embryos?

 

a. Poxvirus
b. Parvovirus
c. Herpesvirus
d. Adenovirus
e. Paramyxovirus
 

b. Parvovirus

1) Besselsen et al.  2008.  Embryo transfer rederivation of C.B-17/Icr-Prkdcscid mice experimentally infected with mouse parvovirus 1.  Comparative Medicine 58(4):353-359.
2) Veterinary Virology, 2nd edition.  Fenner, FJ; Gibbs, EPJ; Murphy, FA; Rott, R; Studdert, MJ; White, DO. p.21 Academic Press, San Diego.
Domain 1; Primary Species – Mouse (Mus musculus)

26

Which of the following animals are commonly used as models of leprosy (Hansen’s disease)?

 

a.    Cercocebus atys and Saimiri boliviensis
b.   Sanguinus fuscicollis and Cercocebus atys
c.    Pan troglodytes and Papio anubis
d.   Macaca fascicularis and Saimiri sciureus
e.    Cercocebus atys and Dasypus novemcinctus

 

e. Cercocebus atys (Sooty mangabey) and Dasypus novemcinctus (Nine-banded armadillo)


1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 16 – Nonhuman Primates, p. 741.
2) http://science.education.nih.gov/animalresearch.nsf/Story1/Armadillos+and+Their+Role+in+Treating+Leprosy
3) Bennett BT, Abee CR, Henrickson R, eds.  1998.  Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  Chapter 2 – Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, pp. 84, 88 and Chapter 9 – Integumentary System, p. 371.
Domain 3; Tertiary Species – Other Nonhuman Primates, Other Mammals

Mycobacterium laprae

 

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27

What is this device?

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Penicyclinder - Porcelain or stainless steel cylinders 8 mm OD x 10 mm long; used in antibiotic assays

28

Define:

a.  Chemically defined
b.  Purified
c.  Natural ingredient 

Natural ingredient:  composed of agricultural product and byproducts and are commercially available for all species.  Nutrient composition of ingredients varies from batch-to-batch.  Can be either open-formula or closed-formula.

Purified:  refined such that each ingredient contains a single nutrient or nutrient class.  These diets have less variability in concentration and potential for chemical contamination is lower.  A frequently used rat purified diet is AIN-76.

Chemically defined:  formulated with very basically defined ingredients (e.g. specific amino acids, sugars, triglycerides, essential fatty acids).  Costly and tend to lack palatability.

National Research Council.  2011.  Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 8th ed.  National Academies Press, Washington D.C.  Chapter 3 - Environment, Housing and Management, p. 65.  
2) Suckow MA, Weisbroth SH, Franklin CL, eds.  2006.  The Laboratory Rat, 2nd edition.  Elsevier Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 9 – Nutrition, pp. 269-271
Domain 4

29

According to the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations, which of the following types of facilities must be licensed as a dealer?

 

a. Facility which produces cloned animals for regulated purposes utilizing standard veterinary medical practices
b. Facility that produces novel genetically engineered animals
c. Facility that only produces antibodies/antisera on a contract basis for particular investigators but not for resale
d. Facility that produces pregnant mare urine
 

 

a. Facility which produces cloned animals for regulated purposes utilizing standard veterinary medical practices

  • A dealer's license would not be required if the research facility only produces antibodies/antisera on a contract basis for particular investigators, not for resale.  If it sells the products retail then a dealer's licence would be required.  But, would be required to be registered as a research facility.
  • Horses used for the production of PMU are not covered by the AWA.
  • A facility that produces novel genetically engineered animals is using such animals in research, and must be registered as a research facility (not  a dealer).
  • A facility which produces cloned animals for regulated purposes utilizing standard veterinary medical practices is considered to be breeding animals, and must be licensed as a dealer.


1) USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Animal Care Policy Manual.  Policy # 10:  Specific Activities Requiring A License Or Registration, March 25, 2011 (http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_welfare/downloads/policy/Policy%20Manual%2003-25-2011.pdf)
2) Animal Welfare Act, 9 CFR Part 2 – Regulations, Subpart C – Research Facilities, §2.1 (3)(i-viii)Annual requirements and application (1-1-01 Edition, p.14.).
Domain 5

 

30

30. What is the most frequent fecal bacterial isolate from subclinical and clinically affected macaques with diarrhea and how is it usually treated?

Campylobacter

Usually presents as watery diarrhea; WBC may be normal or have leukocytosis with left shift; usually severe electrolyte abnormailities:  Na<132, Cl<93, acidosis and a high anion gap

Treatment should include rehydration and replacement of electrolytes with normonatremic fluids.  May be self-limiting so antibiotic efficacy is debatable.

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 16 – Nonhuman Primates, pp. 730-733.
2) Reuter JD, Suckow MA, eds. 2006. In: Laboratory Animal Medicine and Management. International Veterinary Information Service: Ithaca, NY (http://ivis.org/advances/Reuter/toc.asp). Last updated: 25-Sep-2006.
3) Bennett BT, Abee CR, Henrickson R, eds.  1998.  Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  Chapter 2 – Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, pp. 79-81.
Domain 1; Primary Species – Macaques (Macaca spp.)

31

How does Shigellosis present in Old World Monkeys?  In marmosets and tamarins?

Shigella spp. are among the most common enteric pathogens recovered from NHPs, from marmosets, tamarins, macaques, baboons, and apes.

OWM shigellosis characterized by foul-smelling, liquid stool containing mucus, frank blood, and/or mucosal fragments.  Diarrhea is not a primary clinical sign in marmosets and tamarins but, instead are lethargic, depressed, dehydrated with dried blood around anus.

Lesions of enteric shigellosis are primarily in cecum and colon, and confined to those locations in marmosets and tamarins.  In OWMs, may also see intussusception of small intestine, rectal prolapse, splenomegaly, and mesenteric lymphadenopathy.

32

Genus and species?  Life cycle?  How diagnose? 

 

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Syphacia oblevata

Life cycle 11-15 days, direct

Ingested eggs liberate larvae in the small intestine and migrate to the cecum within 24 hours.  Worms remain in cecum for 10-11 days where they mate and mature.  Females then migrate to large intestine and leave the host, depositing eggs on the perianal region.

Diagnosis is finding eggs with perianal tape test, or by looking for adults in cecum or large intestine.

1) Dole V, Zaias J, Kyricopoulos-Cleasby D, Banu L, Waterman L, Sanders K, Henderson K.  2011. Comparison of Traditional and PCR Methods during Screening for and Confirmation of Aspiculuris tetraptera in a Mouse Facility. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 50(6). pp. 904-909.
2) http://www.radil.missouri.edu/info/dora/Dora.htm
3) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA. p.100
Domain 1

 

33

Genus and species?  Life cycle?  How diagnosed?

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Aspicularis tetraptera

Life cycle 23-25 days.  Mature females inhabit the large intestine, where they survive 45-50 days and lay their eggs.  Eggs are deposited at night and are excreted in a mucous layer covering fecal pellets.  Eggs require 6-7 days at 24o C to become infective and can survive for weeks outside the host.

Diagnosis is by finding eggs with fecal floatation methods, and finding adults in the large intestine.

34

Fecal floatation from a mouse.  Genus and species?  Life cycle?  How diagnosed?

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Rodentolepis nana (Dwarf tapeworm)

ZOONOTIC.  Life cycle is direct or indirect, 20-30 days.  Is the only cestode known to not require an intermediate host.  Cystercerci are found in lamina propria of small intestine and sporadically in mesenteric lymph nodes.  Adults found in lumen.  Eggs have 3 rosetellar hooks with polar filaments, and do not survive well outside host. 

Diagnosis is by fecal floatation methods or opening intestines for adults.

Hymenolepis dimunuta requires an intermediate host and also has 3 rostellar hooks but NO with polar filaments

Rodentolepis microstoma is found in the bile ducts of rodents and could possibly be confused with R. nana.  But the size and location of the adults should easily differentiate.

35

Describe the biodisposition of ketamine.

A rapid onset of action and high lipid solubility

1) Fish RE, Brown MJ, Danneman PJ, Karas AZ, eds.  2008.  Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, 2nd ed.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  Chapter 2 – Pharmacology of Injectable Anesthetics, Sedatives, and Tranquilizers, p. 48.
2) Struck et al. 2011. Effect of a short-term fast on ketamine-xylazine anesthesia in rats. JAALAS 50(3):344–348.
Domain 2

36

Which of the following tests is used for the assessment of depression in rodent models?

 

a. Barnes maze
b. Rotarod
c. Tail flick
d. Tail suspension
e. Morris water maze
 

d. Tail suspension

1) Committee on Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research, Institute for Laboratory Animal Research, Division on Earth and Life Studies.  2003.  Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research.  National Academies Press: Washington, D.C.  Chapter 9 – Behavioral Studies, pp. 134, 141.
2) Mulder and Pritchett. 2004.  Rodent models of depression. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci 43(6): 52-54.
3) Mulder and Pritchett. 2004. Rodent analgesiometry: the hot plate, tail flick, and von frey hairs. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci 43(3):54-55
4)  Mulder and Pritchett. 2003. The Morris water maze. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci 42(2):49-50.
5) Pritchett and Mulder. 2003. The rotarod. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci 42(6):49
6)  Pritchett and Mulder. 2003. T, radial arm, and barnes mazes. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci 42(3):53-55.
Domain 3

37

List the most common rodent tests for anxiety.

  1. Generally, the exploration-based tests
  2. Generally, defectation rates also indicate anxiety
  3. Open-field test
  4. elevated plus maze
  5. light-dark exploration test
  6. emergence test
  7. freee-exploration test

Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research.  National Academies Press: Washington, D.C.  Chapter 9 – Behavioral Studies, pp. 134, 141.

38

List the most common rodent tests modeling human affective disorders.

  1. Porsolt swim test (model human depression most closely)
  2. tail-suspension test (model human depression most closely)
  3. anhedonia (e.g. consumption of a sucrose solution)
  4. learned helplessness
  5. chronic mild stress
  6. olfactory bulbectomy
  7. differential reinforcement of low rate of responding behavior
  8. conditioned place preference

39

List common compounds classified as oxidants.

  1. Halogens
    1. chlorine bleach
    2. chlorine dioxide
    3. povodone-iodine
  2. Peroxygens
    1. H2O2
    2. peracetic acid
  3. Ozone

Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 10 - Microbiological Quality Control for Laboratory Rodents and Lagomorphs, p. 370.  

40

List common compounds classified as denaturants.

  1. Quaternary ammonium compounds
    1. benzalkonium chloride
  2. Phenolics
  3. Alcohols

41

List common compounds classified as reactants.

  1. Aldehydes
    1. formaldehyde
    2. glutaraldehyde
  2. Ethylene oxide

42

What DEA Schedule is Tramadol, and by what mechanism(s) does it mediate analgesia?

 

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Not currently controlled.

Is a synthetic opioid agonist.  Inhibits NE and serotonin reuptake.

 

43

Identify the proper DEA Schedule class for each of the following drugs:

  1. Etorphine
  2. Chloral hydrate
  3. Fentanyl
  4. Hydrocodone
  5. Pentobarbital (IV)
  6. Buprenorphine
  7. Anabolic steroids
  8. Ketamine
  9. Tiletamine/zolazepam
  10. Sufentanil
  11. Morphine
  12. Pentobarbital (rectal)
  13. Benzopdiazepines
  14. Butorphanol
  15. Phenobarbital

  1. Etorphine (opiate derivative) - Schedule I
  2. Chloral hydrate  - IV
  3. Fentanyl  - II
  4. Hydrocodone  - II
  5. Pentobarbital (IV)  - II
  6. Buprenorphine  - III
  7. Anabolic steroids  - III
  8. Ketamine  - III
  9. Tiletamine/zolazepam  - III
  10. Sufentanil  - II
  11. Morphine  - II
  12. Pentobarbital (rectal)  - III
  13. Benzopdiazepines  - IV
  14. Butorphanol  - IV
  15. Phenobarbital  - IV

44

Genus and species?  Two areas of research?  Common neoplasms?

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Cynomys ludovicianus (Black-tailed prarie dog)

Biliary physiology and gallstone formation - gall bladder is accessible on ventral surface over right liver lobe; cholesterol-fed animals useful for inducing gallstone formation

Antibiotic-induced diarrhea - cefoxitin induced C. dificile cecitis with a more chronic course than other rodent species

Hepatocellular carcinomas - not associated with hepadnavirus

Odontomas - common cause of upper respiratory disease in captive prarie dogs

1) Keckler MS, et al. 2010. Physiologic Reference Ranges for Captive Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). JAALAS 49(3): 274-281.
2) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 7 – Biology and Diseases of Other Rodents, p. 254.
Domain 3; Tertiary Species – Black-Tailed Prairie Dog (Cynomys ludovicianus)

45

The primary purpose of the CDC’s Guidelines for Biosafety Laboratory Competency is to establish which of the following that laboratory workers at all levels should have to work safely with biologic materials?

 

a.   Behavior and knowledge
b.   Skills and knowledge
c.   Behavior and skills
d.   Risks and behavior
e.   Risks and skills
 

a. Behavior and knowledge

http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/su6002a1.htm?s_cid=su6002a1_w
Domain 6

46

Describe the disease models assocaited with the following rat strains, and indicate the mode of inheritance if known.

  1. ACI
  2. BB/Wor
  3. BN
  4. BUF
  5. COP
  6. F-344
  7. LEW
  8. LOU/C
  9. SHR
  10. WF
  11. Zucker
  12. Battleboro
  13. Gunn
  14. Nude
  15. Obese SHR

  1. ACI  --  prostatic adenocarcinomas; congenital genitourinary anomalies
  2. BB/Wor  --  juvenile Type I DM
  3. BN  --  transplatable myeloid leukemia, hydronephrosis, bladder carcinoma
  4. BUF  --  spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis, host for Morris transplatable Morris carcinoma
  5. COP  --  protate adenocarcinoma
  6. F-344  --  inbred rat model for Carcinogen Bioassay Program and the NIA
  7. LEW  --  MS, various experimentally-induced autoimmune diseases
  8. LOU/C  --  myeloma, production of IgG autoantibody
  9. SHR  --  hypertension, CV research
  10. WF  --  mononuclear cell leukemia
  11. Zucker  --  obesity
  12. Battleboro  --  diabetes insipidus (autosomal recessive - AR)
  13. Gunn  --  jaundice, kernicterus (AR)
  14. Nude  --  T cell deficient (AR)
  15. Obese SHR  --  Type 4 hyperlipoproteinemia (AR)

47

Name the common spontaneous disease model(s) associated with each of the following animal strains or species.

  1. piebald lethal and lethal spotting mouse strain
  2. NOD mouse
  3. New Zealand Black and NZW mice and their hydrids
  4. nude mice
  5. SCID mice
  6. Watanabe rabbits
  7. obese chickens
  8. swine
  9. dogs
  10. mink
  11. cats
  12. gerbils
  13. cattle
  14. sheep

  1. piebald lethal and lethal spotting mouse strain  -- aganglionic megacolon
  2. NOD mouse  -- type I DM
  3. New Zealand Black and NZW mice and their hydrids  --  autoimmune disease
  4. nude mice  --  DiGeorge syndrome
  5. SCID mice  --  SCID
  6. Watanabe rabbits  --  hypercholesterolemia
  7. obese chickens  --  autoimmune thyroiditis
  8. swine  --  elevated LDL, malignant hyperthermia
  9. dogs  --  Duchenne X-linked muscular dystrophy, hemophilia A and B
  10. mink  --  Chediak-Hegashi syndrome
  11. cats  --  achalasia
  12. gerbils  -- idiopathic epilepsy
  13. cattle  --  ichthyosis congenita, hyperkeratosis
  14. sheep  --  Dubin-Johnson syndrome

LAM, p 1187

48

A guinea pig shows clinical signs of lethargy, torticollis, ataxia, and recumbency with an inability to rise.   After the animal was euthanized, tissues were collected and submitted for histopathology. The following was observed on histopathology of the brain.  Name the most likely etiologic agent.

Q image thumb

Baylisascaris procyonis

1)   Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 6 – Biology and Diseases of Guinea Pigs, p 225.
2) Baker, DG. 2007.  Flynn’s Parasites of Laboratory Animals.  2nd edition. Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa.  Chapter 14 – Parasites of Guinea Pigs, pp. 436- 437.
Domain 1; Secondary Species – Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus)

49

From a fecal floatation of a guinea pig with no clinical signs.  What is the most likeley diagnosis?

Q image thumb

Paraspidodera uncinata (cecal worm) - the only common helminth of guinea pigs, inhabits but does not penetrate the cecal and colonic mucosa.

Life cycle is 51-66 days.  Eggs become infective 3-5 days after shedding.

Uncommon in the U.S.

50

According to the AWA, up to how many adult nonconditioned animals of this species can be housed in the same enclosure?  Other restrictions on composition of group housing?

Q image thumb

No more than 12 - applies to both dogs and cats

Queens or bitches with litters may not be housed in same primary enclosure with adults, except when maintained in breeding colonies.

Puppies or kittens 4 months of age or less may not be housed in the same primary enclosure with adult dogs or cats other than their dams or foster dams, except when permanently maintained in breeding colonies.

Queens or bitches in heat may not be housed in the same primary enclosure with sexually mature males, except for breeding.

1) Animal Welfare Act, 9 CFR Part 3 – Standards, Subpart A – Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats, §3.6 Primary enclosures (c) Additional requirements for dogs (ii).
Domain 4; Primary Species – Dog (Canis familiaris)

51

The pictured animal has recently been shown to develop an infection with what virus and may prove to be a valuable animal model for infectious disease research?

Q image thumb

Monkeypox virus

Pictured:  Graphiurus kelleni (African dormouse)

1) Kastenmayer RJ et al. 2010. Management and Care of African Dormice (Graphiurus kelleni). J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 49(2):173-176.
Domain 3; Tertiary Species – Other rodents

52

45. What is the recommended illumination level for sheep in a laboratory setting?

220 lux

1)  Committees to Revise the Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching. 2010. GUIDE For the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching. 3rd Edition. Federation of Animal Science Societies, Savoy, IL.  Chapter 10 – Sheep and Goats, p. 131. 
2)  Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 14 – Biology and Diseases of Ruminants: Sheep, Goats, and Cattle, p. 524.
Domain 4; Secondary Species – Sheep (Ovis aries)

53

Which amendment to the Laboratory Animal Welfare Act of 1966 called for the appropriate use of tranquilizers, analgesics, anesthetics, paralytics, and euthanasia as well as appropriate pre-surgical and post-surgical veterinary medical and nursing care for animals used in research?

 

Food Security Act of 1985

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 2 – Laws, Regulations, and Policies Affecting the Use of Laboratory Animals, p. 20. 
2) http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_welfare/downloads/awa_leg_history.pdf
3) http://www.animallaw.info/statutes/stusawapl_99_198.htm
4) http://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/pubs/AWA2007/intro.shtml
Domain 5

 

54

Describe the coordinate system for the equipment pictured.

Q image thumb

Sterotaxic surgery apparatus pictured.

The zero point for the coordinate system is either:

  1. the intersection of the coronal and sagittal skull sutures - bregma, or
  2. the middle of an interaural line

lambda - intersection of sagittal and lambdoidal sutures

55

This dog breed is an animal model for what human and animal disease?    

Q image thumb

Cyclic Hematopoiesis

This colony is maintained at the University of Washington - Seattle.  The condition is manifested by periodic fluctuations of the cellular components of blood, most notably neutrophils.

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 11 – Biology and Diseases of Dogs, p. 396.
2) Brabb T et al. 1995. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma in two grey collie dogs with cyclic hematopoiesis. Lab. Anim. Sci. 46(5):565-568.
Domain 3; Primary Species – Dog (Canis familiaris)

56

This dog breed is a model for what disease?

Q image thumb

Bedlington Terrier is pictured.

Copper storage diseases, such as Wilson's disease.  

57

This dog breed is an animal model for what disease?  How does the pathogenesis differ from people?

 

Q image thumb

Golden Retriever, duh.

Duchenne muscular dystrophy in children.  Caused by an absence of thre muscle protein dystrophin, inherited in an X-linked recessive manner.  The mechanism and inheritence in Golden Retrievers is the same as in people.

 

58

What mouse strains are most prone to male aggression?  Which are more docile?

BALB/c, C57BL/10, DBA/2, outbred Swiss, TO are generally considered more agonistic.

CBA/Ca and C3H/He are more docile.

LAM, p1242

59

What pre-natal conditions affect male aggressiveness in mice?

Intrauterine position, relating  to local placental transfer of hormones between sexes.

LAM, p 1242

60

What type of sensory cues do mice use to establish dominance heirchy?

Olfactory cues / scent marking

LAM, p. 1242

61

Participation in aggressive encounters among mice has been shown to effect physiologic changes.  Describe those changes.

Q image thumb

  1. Can affect levels of pituitary hormones, including gonadotropins (can cause infertility)
  2. ACTH
  3. catecholamine levels in adrenal medulla
  4. corticosterone levels

LAM, p. 1242

62

Which of the following inhalant agents is preferred for swine anesthesia in cardiovascular procedures because it is the least cardiodepressant?

 

a. Isoflurane
b. Halothane
c. Nitrous oxide
d. Methoxyflurane
 

a. Isoflurane

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 22 – Preanesthesia, Anesthesia, Analgesia, and Euthanasia, p. 983
2) Fish RE, Brown MJ, Danneman PJ, Karas AZ, eds.  2008.  Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, 2nd ed.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA. Chapter 3 – Pharmacology of Inhalation Anesthetics, pp. 91-92 and Chapter 15 – Anesthesia and Analgesia in Swine, pp. 417-418
Domain 2; Primary Species – Pig (Sus scrofa)

63

What does the device in the picture detect?

 

a. ATP from only replicating bacteria and fungi
b. ATP from only replicating bacteria
c. ATP from all organic matter
d. The number of Colony Forming Units
 

Q image thumb

c. ATP from all organic matter

1) Meier TR, Maute CJ, Cadillac JM, Lee JY, Righter DJ, Hugunin KMS, Deininger RA, Dysko RC. 2008. Quantification, Distribution, and Possible Source of Bacterial Biofilm in Mouse Automated Watering Systems. JAALAS 47(2):63-70.
2) Schondelmeyer CW, Dillehay DL, Webb SK, Huerkamp MJ, Mook DM, Pullium JK. 2006. Investigation of Appropriate Sanitization Frequency for Rodent Caging Accessories: Evidence Supporting Less-frequent Cleaning. JAALAS 45(6):40-43.
Domain 4

64

List the common research uses for this species.

Q image thumb

Pictured:  Marmota monax (Woodchuck or Groundhog)

Much of the research application revolves around the fact that woodchucks are obligate hibernators in the wild, and body weight may increase 25-100% during spring and summer, and decreases by 15-50% during autumn and winter hibernation.  Similar changes occur in lab woodchucks, even when prevented from entering a deep hibernation state and constantly maintained in a natural photoperiod and room temperature.

  1. food intake
  2. obesity
  3. energy balance
  4. endogenous circannual cycles
  5. photoperiod entrainment of circannual cycles
  6. seasonal breeding
  7. hibernation
  8. viral hepatitis (WHV) and its sequelae, including hepatocellular carcinoma

LAM, p. 310

65

All of the following are examples of redundancy EXCEPT?

 

a.   Parallel air handling systems
b.   N + 1 boilers
c.   Central energy plant utilization without emergency power
d.   Duel chillers
 

c. Central energy plant utilization without emergency power

Reference: Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 21 – Design and Management of Animal Facilities, p. 925.
Domain 4

66

According to the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, a satellite facility is any containment outside of a core facility or centrally designated or managed area in which animals are housed for more than how many hours?

24 hours

Reference: Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare.  2002.  Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.  National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, p. 8.
Domain 5

67

What is this piece of equipment used to evaluate?

Q image thumb

Fear and anxiety

1) Gadad BS, Daher JPL, Hutchinson EK, Brayton CF, Dawson TM, Pletnikov MV, Watson J. 2010. Effect of Fenbendazole on Three Behavioral Tests in Male C57BL/6N Mice. JAALAS. 49(6):821 – 825
2)  Rasmussen S, Miller MM, Filipski SB, Tolwani RJ. 2011. Cage Change Influences Serum Corticosterone and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Mouse. JAALAS. 50(4):479 – 483
Domain 3

68

Describe the unique reproductive physiology of this species and associated husbandry and clinical practices to properly manage it.

Q image thumb

Mustela putorius furo.  Seasonal breeders and induced ovulators. Seasonality corresponds tightly to increasing day length.

  • Under artificial 8:16 light:dark, jills will reach puberty at 10-12 months
  • Longer light periods can be used to stimuate breeding out of natural season, but should not be done prior to 90 days of age or jill will remain anestrous
  • Dramatic vulvar swelling is characteristic of estrus in jills
  • Estrus is not associated with increase in FSH as in the rodent
  • Estrus may terminate by:  coitus, pseudopregnancy by infertile mating, hCG or GnRH administration, death due to aplastic anemia, spontaneous remission due to reduced photoperiod
  • About 50% of all jills in persistent estrus will exhibit bone marrow hypoplasia of all cell lines
  • Clinical signs of hyperestrogenism:  vulvar enlargement, bilaterally symmetrical alopecia of tail and abdomen, weakness, anorexia, depression, bacterial infection, mucopurulent vaginal discharge

LAM, p 488, 506

69

What does this equipment measure?

Q image thumb

ECG noninvasively, with no telemetry.

The mouse is removed from its cage, set on the ECG recording platform and allowed to acclimate for 5-10 minutes. The gel-coated ECG electrodes embedded are in the floor of the platform. After the acclimation period, the mouse is positioned on the gel-coated electrodes for data collection. The mouse must make contact with each of its hind feet and one of its front feet for the recording to be made. The animal must remain in contact with the electrodes to allow for 20-30 continuous ECG signals before analyzing the data.

1) Fox JG et al, eds. 2007. The Mouse in Biomedical Research, Volume 3, 2nd Edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 2 – Mouse Physiology, p.38.
2) Chu V et al. 2001. Method for non-invasively recording electrocardiograms in conscious mice.  BMC Physiol 1:6.
Domain 3

70

Which of the following is TRUE regarding the sequential stopping rule (SSR)?

 

a. Use of SSR can potentially lead to the detection of too many significant effects when the null hypothesis is actually false
b. The SSR is not as efficient as the fixed stopping rule, in which only a fixed number of animals are used
c. The SSR holds the probability of a type I error constant and maintains excellent power
d. The SSR is less efficient than is performing a typical significance test after a power analysis
e. The SSR is only to be used after the size of the anticipated effect is known
 

c. The SSR holds the probability of a type I error constant and maintains excellent power

1) Fitts. 2011. Ethics and animal numbers: informal analyses, uncertain sample sizes, inefficient replications, and type I errors. JAALAS 50(4):445-453.
2) Fitts. 2011. Minimizing animal numbers: the variable-criteria sequential stopping rule. Comp Med 61(3):206-218.
Domain 3

71

Identify the equipment depicted in this picture.

Q image thumb

Bioluminescence imager

1) Sato A, Klaunberg B, Tolwani R. 2004. In vivo bioluminescence imaging. Comp Med 54(6):631-4.
2) Zinn KR, Chaudhuri TR, Szafran AA, O'Quinn D, Weaver C, Dugger K, et al. 2008. Noninvasive bioluminescence imaging in small animals. ILAR 49(1):103-15.
Domain 3

72

60. Conception rates of greater than what percent are reported in outbred stocks of rats?

85%

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 4 - Biology and Diseases of Rats, p. 131.
2) Suckow MA, Weisbroth SH, Franklin CL, eds.  2006.  The Laboratory Rat, 2nd edition.  Elsevier Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 6 – Reproduction and Breeding, p. 151.
Domain 4; Primary Species - (Rattus norvegicus)

73

According to the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations, the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee can have no more than how many members from the same administrative unit of the facility (Departmental level)?

3

1) Animal Welfare Act, 9 CFR Part 2 – Regulations, Subpart C – Research Facilities, §2.31(b)(4) Institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC).  (1-1-01 Edition, p. 21).
2) Applied Research Ethics National Association (ARENA) and Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW).  2002.  Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Guidebook.  2nd Edition.  OLAW, Bethesda, MD.  Section A.2. Authority, Composition and Functions, p. 14.
Domain 5