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Flashcards in Univ of Arizona Mock Exam D Deck (74):
1

What is the optimum water temperature (°C) for growth and development of this species?        

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24-28o C   (75-82o F)

1)  Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 19 – Biology and Management of the Zebrafish, p. 867
2) Harper C, Lawrence C, The Laboratory Zebrafish, CRC Press:  Boca Raton, FL.  Chapter 3 – Life Support, p. 110.
Domain 4; Secondary Species – Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

2

The condition seen below is thought to be influenced by dietary, environmental, and disease related factors.  The condition is very common in which strains of mice? 

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BALB/c, C3H, and especially DBA

1) Percy DH and Barthold SW.  2007.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd ed.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa.  Chapter 1 – Mouse, pg 94.
2) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press:  San Diego, CA.  Chapter 3 – Biology and Diseases of Mice, pg. 106.
Domain 4; Primary Species – Mouse (Mus musculus)

3

A technician with ALAT certification but no high school diploma will need how many years of laboratory animal science experience after receiving ALAT certification in order to take the LAT certification examination?

2 years
  http://www.aalas.org/pdf/Tech_Cert_handbook.pdf#Eligibility (p. 3)
Domain 6

4

Which strain of mouse, characterized by the large pronuclei of its zygotes, was most likely used for the procedure shown?

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FVB/N

1)  Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 28 – Transgenic and Knockout Mice, p. 1131.
2)  Nagy A., Gertsenstein M., Vintersten K., Behringer R., Manipulating the Mouse Embryo, 3rd edition. Coldspring Harbor, NY  2003.  Chapter 3 – Production of Transgenic and Chimeric Mice, p. 151.
Domain 3; Primary Species – Mouse (Mus musculus)

5

Which of the following diseases is a common occurrence in aging hamsters and is a principle cause of death in long-term experiments?

 

a. Amyloidosis
b. Polycystic kidney disease
c. Cerebral hemorrhage
d. Nephrosclerosis
 

a. Amyloidosis

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002 Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 5 – Biology and Disease of Hamsters, p. 188.
2) Percy DH and Barthold SW.  2007.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd ed.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa.  Chapter 3 – Hamster, pp. 200-204
Domain 1; Secondary Species – Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) and Tertiary Species – Other Rodents

6

Which of the following is an indicator of pain in an adult bovine?

 

a. Regurgitation
b. Bruxism
c. Agnathia
d. Tail swishing
 

b. Bruxism

References: Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 22 – Preanesthesia, Anesthesia, Analgesia, and Euthanasia, p. 989.
Domain 2; Tertiary Species – Other Livestock

7

What should the water temperature be for Xenopus laevis?

20-22o C   (68-72o F)

Ranges of 18-24o C are considered acceptable for adequate growth.

Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 17 – Biology and Diseases of Amphibians, p. 810.
Domain 4; Secondary Species – African Clawed Frog (Xenopus spp.)

8

How does measles usually present in marmosets?

  • Gastrointestinal disease
  • Usually no rash
  • High mortality
  • Necrotizing gastroenteritis
  • Syncytia in GI epithelium

LAM p 754

9

Which of the following substances is commonly used in BDIX rats to induce colorectal cancer?

 

a.  Methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine
b.  Azaserine
c.  N-methyl-N-nitrosourea
d.  Methyl-alkyl nitrosamines
e.  Azoxymethane
 

e. Azoxymethane

Reference: Krobaek et al. 2002. Comparative study of histopathologic characterization of azoxymethane-induced colon tumors in three inbred rat strains. Comp Med 52(1):50-57.
Domain 3; Primary Species – Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

10

Which of the following species requires a flat surface for sleeping, preferably in a nest box where a curled position can be assumed to conserve body heat?

 

a. Saimiri sciureus
b. Macaca fascicularis
c. Papio cynocephalis
d. Callithrix jacchus

 

d. Callithrix jacchus

References: Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 16 – Nonhuman Primates, pp. 684, 696-697, 700-701, 708, 710.
Domain 4; Secondary Species – Marmosets/Tamarins (Callitrichidae)

11

Which of the following is TRUE with respect to Type A1 Class II biological safety cabinets?

 

a.  They are not appropriate for work involving ABSL-3 containment
b.  They are not appropriate for work involving volatile chemicals or radionuclides
c.  They use a horizontal laminar airflow
d. The exhaust is never to the laboratory but always to the building exhaust system
 

b. They are not appropriate for work involving volatile chemicals or radionuclides

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 24 – Control of Biohazards, p. 1050.
2) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 21 – Design and Management of Animal Facilities, p. 945.
3) U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and National Institutes of Health.  2007.  Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories.  5th ed.  U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. Appendix A – Primary Containment for Biohazards, pp. 311-312. (http://www.cdc.gov/biosafety/publications/bmbl5/BMBL5_appendixA.pdf)
Domain 5

12

Describe the technique and relevant anatomical structures for the technique shown in mice, rats, hamsters, and gerbils.

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  • medial canthus in a caudal and medial direction to orbital plexus in rat
  • lateral canthus to venous sinus in mice, hamsters, and gerbils

LAM, p 1009

13

Which of the following is FALSE regarding Pseudoloma neurophilia infection in fish?

 

a.   Pseudoloma neurophilia is a bacterial pathogen
b.   Clinical signs include emaciation and spinal curvature
c.   Diagnosis can be made using PCR of the brain and spinal cord
d.   Spores may be transmitted from tank to tank using cleaning implements
e.   Surface sanitization of embryos may be used to control the disease
 

a is false

Pseudoloma neurophila is a microsporidian parasite

Reference: Murray et al. 2011. Transmission, diagnosis, and recommendations for control of Pseudoloma neurophilia infections in laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio) facilities. Comp Med 61(4):322-332. 
Domain 1; Secondary Species - Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

14

Which of the following are the most important predictors for mortality in infectious disease research and longevity studies?

 

a. Decreased appetite and hypothermia
b. Decreased appetite and hyperthermia
c. Body weight loss and hypothermia
d. Decreased activity and hypothermia
e. Decreased appetite and body weight loss
 

c. Body weight loss and hypothermia

1) Trammell and Toth. 2011. Markers for predicting death as an outcome for mice used in infectious disease research. Comp Med (61)6:492–498.
2) Ray et al. 2010. Identification of markers for imminent death in mice used in longevity and aging research. JAALAS 49(3):282-288.
3) Olfert and Goodson. 2000. Humane endpoints for infectious disease animal models. ILAR J 41(2):99-104.
Domain 2

15

What does the depicted test measure?  

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Thermal nociceptive threshold

1) Coble DJ, Taylor DK, Mook DM.  2011.  Analgesic Effects of Meloxicam, Morphine Sulfate, Flunixin Meglumine, and Xylazine Hydrochloride in African-Clawed Frogs (Xenopus laevis).  JAALAS 50(3): 355-360.
2) Mulder GB, Pritchett K.  2004. Rodent Analgesiometry: The Hot Plate, Tail Flick and Von Frey Hairs.  Contemporary Topics 43(3): 54-55
Domain 2; Secondary Species – African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis)

16

The optical imaging methodology illustrated below utilizes what biological light-emitting pigment to allow in vivo determination of disease progression, inflammation, or gene expression?

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Luciferin

1) http://www.caliperls.com/products/preclinical-imaging/
2) Ray P. 2011. Multimodality molecular imaging of disease progression in living subjects. J Biosci. 36(3):499-504.
Domain 3

17

Which of the following statements best describes how nest boxes should be provided for hens (Gallus domesticus)?

 

a. Nesting material inside the box should be loose, moldable and allow the hen to build their own nest rather than use a pre-shaped nest
b. Shape of the nest box itself is more important than the nesting material with round nest boxes preferred
c. Nest boxes should contain within them a perch made of a smooth material that is a small diameter
d. Nest boxes should contain an abrasive strip inside so that the hens can wear down their claws on the strip
 

a. Nesting material inside the box should be loose, moldable and allow the hen to build their own nest rather than use a pre-shaped nest

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 32 – Laboratory Animal Behavior, p. 1254.
2) Committees to Revise the Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Agricultural Research and Teaching.  2010.  GUIDE For the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching.  3rd Edition.  Federation of Animal Science Societies, Savoy, IL.  Chapter 9 - Poultry, pp. 115-116.
Domain 4; Tertiary Species –Chicken (Gallus domesticus)

18

Which of the following situations involving the use, sale, or transportation of rabbits WOULD NOT require licensing under the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations?

 

a. Rabbits sold in a retail pet store
b. Rabbits used in research at a University that receives NIH funding
c. Rabbits used in research at a private company that receives no external funding
d. A transportation company that carries rabbits from a dealer to a research institution
e. Rabbits sold from a large fur farm to a university for use in research that totals $2000-$5000 per year
 

a. Rabbits sold in a retail pet store

1) Animal Welfare Regulations, CFR Title 9, Chapter 1, Subchapter A, Part 2 – Regulations, Subpart A – Licensing, §2.1 (3)(i-vii) Requirements and application (1-1-00 Edition, p. 14).
2) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 2 – Laws, Regulations and Policies Affecting the use of Laboratory Animals, p. 21.
Domain 5; Primary Species - Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

19

Which of the following has been associated with typhylocolitis in athymic nude rats?

 

a. Helicobacter bilis
b. Helicobacter typhlonius
c. Helicobacter trogontum
d. Helicobacter hepaticus
e. Helicobacter rodentium

 

a. Helicobacter bilis

1) Percy DH and Barthold SW.  2007.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd ed.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa.  Chapter 2 - Rat, pp. 140-141.
2) Suckow MA, Weisbroth SH, Franklin CL, eds.  2006.  The Laboratory Rat, 2nd edition.  Elsevier Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 11 – Bacterial, Mycoplasmal and Mycotic Infections, pp. 355-357.
3) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002 Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 4 – Biology and Diseases of Rats, pp. 139-140
Domain 1; Primary Species – Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

20

What are examples of denaturants?  reactants?  oxidants?

Denaturant:

  • quaternary ammonium compounds (benzalkonium chloride)
  • phenolics
  • alcohols

Reactant:

  • aldehydes
  • ethylene oxide

Oxidant:

  • halogens (chlorine bleach, chlorine dioxide, povodone-iodine)
  • peroxygens (H2O2, peracetic acid)
  • ozone

21

The apparatus shown below is commonly used to assess what type of behavior in transgenic or knockout rodents?

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Anxiety behavior; determined by calculating the amount of time the animal spends along the perimeter of the field as opposed to the center

1) Crawley JN. 1999. Behavioral phenotyping of transgenic and knockout mice: experimental design and evaluation of general health, sensory functions, motor abilities, and specific behavioral tests. Brain Res 835(1):18-26.
2) Karl T, Pabst R, von Hörsten S. 2003. Behavioral phenotyping of mice in pharmacological and toxicological research. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 55(1):69-83.
Domain 3

22

What is the preferred site for needle aspiration to collect bone marrow samples in a rhesus macaque?

Iliac crest

1)  Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 16 – Nonhuman Primates, p. 729
2)  Bennett BT, Abee CR, Henrickson R, eds.  1995.  Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Biology and Management.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  Chapter 13 – Collection of Biological Samples and Therapy Administration, p. 280.
Domain 3; Primary Species – Macaques (Macaca spp.)

23

Which of the following IS NOT well detected by evaluating sentinel mice exposed to dirty bedding?

a. Helicobacter
b. Mouse hepatitis virus
c. Mouse parvovirus
d. Sendai virus
e. Murine rotavirus
 

 

d. Sendai virus

Reference: Compton et al. 2004. Efficacy of three microbiological monitoring methods in a ventilated cage rack.  Comp Med 54(4):382-392.
Domain 4; Primary Species – Mouse (Mus musculus)

 

24

What does this designation mean?

 

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Package label indicating it contains a category A infectious substance.

  • Category A material:  infectious substance transported in a form capable of causing permanent disability or life-threatening or fatal disease to healthy humans or animals with exposure.
  • UN 2814:  cause disease in humans or in both humans and animals
  • UN 2900:  causes disease in animals only

BMBL, p 340

25

What does this designation mean?

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Package labeling indicating it contains a Category B infectious substance.

  • Category B infectious substance is one that does not meet criteria for Category A.  It does NOT cause permanent disability or life-threatenting or fatal disease to humans or animals with exposure.
  • Terms "Diagnostic specimen" or "Clinical specimen" may no longer be used as of Jan. 1, 2007.

26

According to NIH policy on the requirement for instruction in the responsible conduct of research for training and career development grants (R25), acceptable programs generally involve at least how many total contact hours of instruction between the participants and the participating faculty during the proposed training period?

8 hours

Reference: http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-10-019.html
Domain 5

27

Which of the following practices has been shown to eliminate murine norovirus from mice?

 

a. Cross-fostering pups at 1-2 days of age from MNV infected dams to MNV negative dams that are housed and handled in clean facilities
b. Cross-fostering pups within the first 10 days of age from MNV infected dams to MNV negative dams housed in the same room
c. C-section derivation of pups from MNV infected dams to MNV negative dams at 3 days prior to expected delivery of pups
d. Embryo transfer from MNV infected dams at 5 days after copulation to MNV negative dams housed in clean facilities
 

a. Cross-fostering pups at 1-2 days of age from MNV infected dams to MNV negative dams that are housed and handled in clean facilities

1) Buxbaum et al. 2011. Eliminating murine norovirus by cross-fostering. JAALAS 50(4):495-499. 
2) Compton. 2008. Prevention of murine norovirus infection in neonatal mice by fostering.  JAALAS 47(3):25-30.
Domain 1; Primary Species - Mouse (Mus musculus)

28

This device is used to model:

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Acute thermal pain

1) http://www.shurilla.com/tailflick.htm.   Illustration:  Rat Tail Flick Device
2) Models of Nociception: Hot‐Plate, Tail‐Flick, and Formalin Tests in Rodents
Anthony W. Bannon,  Annika B. Malmburg, Current Protocols in Neuroscience, October 2007
Domain 2; Primary Species – Rat, Mouse

29

Which of the following is a potential side effect or complication of using thiopental as a preoperative medication?

 

a.  Infection at the injection site due to the ability of the lipid and glycerol-based solvent to support bacterial growth
b.   Suppression of glucocorticoid synthesis by the adrenal gland
c.   Strong local numbing effect causing self-mutilation at the injection site
d.   Perivascular skin necrosis and sloughing if extravasation occurs
e.  Excitement, which may include paddling, vocalization, panting, urination, and defecation
 

d. Perivascular skin necrosis and sloughing if extravasation occurs

1) Fish RE, Brown MJ, Danneman PJ, Karas AZ, eds.  2008.  Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, 2nd ed.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  Chapter 13 – Anesthesia and Analgesia in Dogs and Cats, pp. 372.
2) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 22 – Preanesthesia, Anesthesia, Analgesia, and Euthanasia, pp. 988-989.
Domain 2

30

Systemic administration of MPTP in NHPs causes what?

1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) produces signs of Parkinson's disease when given to NHPs.

It destroys dopamine-producing cells of the brain.

LAM, p 1187

31

What is the function of this device?

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Controls respiratory rate and tidal volume in mice under anesthesia.  (Mouse ventilator)

1) Fish, RE, Brown, MJ, Danneman, PJ, Karas, AZ.  Eds, 2008.  Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, 2nd Ed.  Academic Press, New York, NY.  Chapter 5—Anesthetic Delivery Systems p. 154
2) www.harvardapparatus.com  Harvard Model 687 Mouse Ventilator
Domain 2

32

Which of the following statements regarding environment, housing and management is TRUE regarding recommendations made in the most recent version of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals?

 

a. Hamsters may now be housed outdoors provided adequate provisions are made to allow nesting and burrowing
b. Minimum height for rabbit caging must be increased from 14 inches to 16 inches
c. For group housing of nonhuman primates, determination of the total minimum cage space needed do not need to be based on the summation of the amounts recommended for individually housed animals
d. Static life support systems should no longer be used for aquatic species exhibiting schooling behavior
 

b. Minimum height for rabbit caging must be increased from 14 inches to 16 inches.

Reference: Institute for Laboratory Animal Resources. 2011. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.  Chapter 3 - Environment, Housing and Management, pp. 55-61.
Domain 5; Primary Species – Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

33

Describe the technique and landmarks for CSF collection in the rabbit.

  • lateral recumbency
  • shave and prep base of skull
  • ears securely secured
  • flex neck
  • thumb on occipital protuberance
  • insert 22 ga, 1.5" spinal needle ~2mm caudal to occipital protuberance parallel to table into 4th ventricle
  • remove stylet and withdraw 1.5-2 ml

LAM, p 1022

34

Rank the following mouse viruses from least to most sensitive to disinfectants:

  • Paramyxovirus
  • Rotavirus
  • Adenovirus
  • Picornavirus
  • Parvovirus
  • Coronavirus
  • Arenavirus
  • Reovirus

 

Most sensitive:

  • Paramyxovirus (SV, PVM)
  • Coronavirus (MHV, SDAV)
  • Arenavirus (LCMV)

Moderately sensitive:

  • Adenovirus (MAdV)
  • Reovirus (Reo-3)
  • Rotavirus (EDIM)

Least sensitive:

  • Picornavirus (TMEV)
  • Parvovirus

LAM, p 371

 

35

Which of the following is a feature of the unit pictured above?

 

a. The Biosafety Cabinet pictured above requires the use of rubber gloves and gas-tight construction.
b. The Biosafety Cabinet pictured above will not provide product protection, but will provide personnel protection.
c. Due to no recirculation of air, this Biosafety Cabinet can be used for non-volatile chemical and radionucleotide handling.
d. The use of the Biosafety Cabinet pictured above has a face velocity of 75 lfm.
 

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c. Due to no recirculation of air, this Biosafety Cabinet can be used for non-volatile chemical and radionucleotide handling.

  • Note hard-ducting in picture
  • All Class II and III provide product protection
  • Hard ducting tells us that it must be a Class II Type B with a face velocity of 100 lpm
  • All BSC can be used to handle nonvolatile toxic chemicals and radionuclides (Class IIA1 must be in minute amounts)
  • volatile toxic chemicals and radionuclides can be handled:
    • in Class I, IIB1 and IIA2 (minute amounts) when exhausted outside
    • in Class IIB2 and III in small amounts
    • NOT in Class IIA1

BMBL, p 311

36

According to the Animal Welfare Act and its regulations, dog runs should be sanitized at least how often?

Once every 2 weeks

Reference: Animal Welfare Act, 9 CFR Part 3 – Standards, Subpart A – Specifications for the humane handling, care, treatment, and transportation of dogs and cats, §3.11 (b)(2) Cleaning, sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control  (1-1-00 Edition, p. 52).
Domain 5; Primary Species – Dog (Canis familiaris)

37

Etiology of suckling hamster on right?

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Hamster parvovirus

Typically presents as epizootic with high mortality with malformed and missing incisors in suckling and weaning Syrian hamsters.

  • necrosis and inflammation of dental pulp with leukocytic infiltration of dental lamina and osteoclasis of alveolar bone
  • also can cause domes calvaria and pot-bellied appearance

PB, p 181

38

The LEAST sensitive analytical method for determining contamination with Reovirus in a mouse colony is:

 

a.  Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays (ELISA)
b.  Indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA)
c.  Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
     (rt-PCR)
d.  Nucleic acid sequence analysis
 

a.  Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays (ELISA)

 

Reference:  M. Hicks Wight et al.  2004.  Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction detection and nucleic acid sequence confirmation of Reovirus infection in laboratory mice with discordant serologic indirect immunofluoresence assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results.  Comparative Medicine 54(4):  410-417.
 

39

Which of the following groups of nonhuman primates require vitamin D3 in their diet?

 

a.  Strepsirhine primates
b.  Platyrrhine primates
c.  Catarrhine primates
d.  None of the above requires vitamin D3 in their diet
 

b. Platyrrhine primates (New World Monkeys)

1) Bennett BT, Abee CR, Henrickson R, eds.  1995.  Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Biology and Management.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  Chapter 11 – Nutrition, p. 224.
2) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 16 - Nonhuman Primates, pp. 679-680.
Domain 4

40

A 6-week-old guinea pig from a conventional colony presents with swelling and erythema of the conjunctiva.  Physical exam is otherwise unremarkable. What is your primary differential?

Chlamydophila caviae

  • relatively widespread in conventional colonies
  • 4-8 weeks old most frequently actively infected
  • frequently asymptomatic
  • can also see rhinitis, genital tract infection, abortion, lower respiratory tract infection
  • intracytoplasmic inclusions and bacteria on stained conjunctival smears
  • usually self-limiting

1) Percy DH and Barthold SW.  2007.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd ed.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa.  Chapter 5 – Guinea Pig, pp. 221-222, 226-230.
2) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 5 – Biology and Diseases of Hamsters, pp. 182, 185
Domain 1; Secondary Species – Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus)

41

What chemicals induce insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and what is the mechanism of action?

Alloxan and Streptozotocin selectively destroy beta cells of the islets of Langerhans.

Mouse models show that NAD depletion by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is a dominant metabolic event in islet cell destruction.

LAM, p 1187

42

Name two spontaneous rodent models of insulin-dependent diabetes.

NOD mouse and BB rat

  • more analogous in pathogenesis to human Type I diabetes than chemically-induced models

LAM, p 1187

43

In studies that require the rearing of orphaned neonatal rabbit kits, how often should the kits be fed in order to most closely mimic the natural feeding pattern of neonatal rabbits?

The doe normally nurses the kits once daily for several minutes, usually in the early morning or evening.

LAM, p 338

44

What animal biosafety level (ABSL) is recommended for all manipulations of cultures of pathogenic Brucella spp.?

 ABSL3

1) Committee on Occupational Safety and Health in Research Animal Facilities, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council.  1997.  Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals.  National Academy Press, DC.  Chapter 5 – Zoonoses, pp. 90-91.
2) U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and National Institutes of Health.  2007.  Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories.  5th ed.  U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C.   Section VIIIA – Bacterial Agents, p. 127 (http http://www.cdc.gov/biosafety/publications/bmbl5/BMBL5_sect_VIII_a.pdf).
Domain 5

45

Which of the following species is a common host of Dentostomella translucida?

 

a. Cricetulus griseus
b. Sus scrofa
c. Mesocricetus auratus
d. Cavia porcellus
e. Meriones unguiculatus

 

e. Meriones unguiculatus

1) Percy DH and Barthold SW.  2007.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd ed.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa.  Chapter 4 – Gerbil, p. 212.
2) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 7 – Biology and Diseases of Other Rodents, p. 277.
3) Baker DG, ed. 2007. Flynn’s Parasites of Laboratory Animals, 2nd edition. Blackwell Publishing, Iowa, USA. Chapter 13 – Parasites of Gerbils, pp. 414-416.
Domain 1; Secondary Species – Gerbil (Meriones spp.)

46

A juvenile macaque presented with diarrhea.  A wet mount of the feces was prepared and the organism depicted in this slide was identified.  What is the genus of the organism?

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Entamoeba (histolytica)

  • Occurs in cecum and colon of most primates, including humans
  • Less common in NWM but more likely to have clinical signs
  • Diagnosis made by by microscopic ID in feces and/or from characteristic flask-shaped intestinal ulcers

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47

Describe how the following anesthetics are metabolized and excreted:

Acepromazine

Ketamine

Xylazine

Acepromazine:  

  • undergo extensive first pass metabolism
  • highly bound to albumin
  • hepatic metabolism through oxidative cytochrome P450, N-demethylation, and subsequent conjugation to glucuronic acid
  • hydrophilic metabolites excreted into urine, and bile to a lesser extent

AALA, p 54

Ketamine:

  • metabloized by liver in most species
  • N-demethylation by cytochrome P450 to norketamine
  • norketamine has 1/3-1/5 activity
  • norketamine hydroxylated and conjugated to water-soluble products and excreted by kidney

AALA, p 48

Xylazine:

  • hepatic metabolism by oxidation of aromatic moeity, and cleavage of heterocyclic ring
  • no active metabolites
  • 70% excreted in urine, 8% of which is unchanged xylazine

AALA, p 52

48

Which of the following best describes muscular dystrophy in golden retrievers used as a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in human children?

 

a. Autosomal dominant duplication of the gene encoding the muscle protein dystrophin
b. X-linked dominant deletion of the gene encoding the muscle protein dystrophin
c. Autosomal recessive absence of the muscle protein dystrophin
d. X-linked recessive absence of the muscle protein dystrophin
e. Autosomal recessive duplication of the gene encoding the muscle protein dystrophin
 

d. X-linked recessive absence of the muscle protein dystrophin

1)   Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 11 – Biology and Diseases of Dogs, p. 396.
2) Rouger et al. 2011. Systemic delivery of allogenic muscle stem cells induces long-term muscle repair and clinical efficacy in duchenne muscular dystrophy dogs. Am J Pathol 179(5):2501-2518.
Domain 3; Primary Species – Dog (Canis familiaris)

49

Equipment and supplies to be sterilized in an autoclave chamber are exposed to temperatures in what range?

250-270°F (121-132o C)

1)   Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 21 – Design and Management of Animal Facilities, p. 934.
2) Hessler JR, Lehner NDM, eds.  2009.  Planning and Designing Research Animal Facilities.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  Chapter 31 – Special Fixed Equipment for Research Animal Facilities, p. 420.
Domain 4

50

Individual animals experiencing pain or distress, which is alleviated with anesthetics, analgesics, sedatives and/or tranquilizers should be reported in which of the following columns of the annual report to the USDA (APHIS Form 7023)?
 
a.   Column A
b. Column B
b.   Column C
d.   Column D
e.   Column E

d. Column D

Reference: USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Animal Care Policy Manual.  Policy # 11 – Painful / Distressful Procedures.  April 14, 1997 (http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_welfare/downloads/policy/policy11.pdf
Domain 5

51

A Rhesus macaque presents with anorexia, vomiting, and severe diarrhea. On necropsy, this lesion was seen within the colon and cecum. Organisms are seen on histology with a Giemsa stain. Which of the following parasites is most likely associated with these findings?

 

Q image thumb

Entamoeba histolytica

1)   Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 16 – Nonhuman Primates, pp. 758-759, 762.
2) Bennett BT, Abee CR, Henrickson R, eds.  1998.  Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 3 – Parasitic Diseases, pp 116-119, 130-133, 166-168.
Domain 1; Primary Species – Macaques (Macaca spp.)

 

52

How is this equipment used in the animal facility?

 

a. Reduce labor costs and provide ergonomic benefits
b. Provide reserves for emergencies
c. Increase mortality
d. Eliminate cage flooding
 

Q image thumb

a. Reduce labor costs and provide ergonomic benefits

1) Gordon and Wyatt. 2011. The water delivery system affects the rate of weight gain in C57BL/6J mice during the first week after weaning. JAALAS 50(1):37–40.
2) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 21 – Design and Management of Animal Facilities, p. 936.
Domain 4

53

Which of the following injectable anesthetic or immobilization agents can be nephrotoxic in rabbits?

 

a. Telazol
b. Medetomidine
c. Propofol
d. Urethane
e. Fentanyl/droperidol
 

a. Telazol

1) Fish, RE, Brown, MJ, Danneman, PJ, Karas, AZ, eds. 2008. Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, 2nd edition. Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 8 – Anesthetic Combinations, p. 66 and Chapter 11 – Anesthesia and Analgesia in Rabbits, p. 313.
2) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press:  San Diego, CA. Chapter 22 – Preanesthesia, Anesthesia, Analgesia, and Euthanasia, p. 970.
3) Quesenberry, KE, Carpenter, JW, eds.  Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents – Clinical Medicine and Surgery, 2nd edition.  Saunders, St. Louis, MO.  Chapter 33 – Anesthesia, Analgesia, and Sedation of Small Mammals, p. 360.
Domain 1; Primary Species – Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

54

Which of the following is FALSE with respect to this equipment?

 

a. Concentrations of CO2 tend to be higher than in open-top cages
b. Concentrations of NH3 tend to be higher than in open-top cages
c. Relative humidity tends to be lower than in the room
d. They are effective in preventing particulate transfer to and from the cage
e. The microenvironment inside them is variable depending on biomass, strain of mice, and other factors.
 

Q image thumb

c. Relative humidity tends to be lower than in the room

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  Chapter 29 – Factors that may Influence Animal Research, p. 1149.
2) Fox JG, Barthold SW, Davisson MT, Newcomer CE, Quimby FW, Smith AL, eds.  2007.  The Mouse in Biomedical Research, 2nd edition, Volume 3 – Normative Biology, Husbandry and Models. Elsevier Academic Press, San Diego, CA.  Chapter 9 – Design and Management of Research Facilities for Mice, pp. 294-295.
Domain 4; Primary Species – Mice (Mus musculus)

55

Which mouse strain or stock is commonly used for pronuclear microinjection because the pronuclei of the zygotes are somewhat larger and more distinctive than those collected from comparable strains?  

FVB/N

1)  Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 28 – Transgenic and Knockout Mice, pp. 1130-1131.
2)  http://jaxmice.jax.org/strain/001800.html
Domain 3; Primary Species – Mouse (Mus musculus)

56

Cause of lesion?

Q image thumb

Corynebacterium bovis

1) Burr et al. 2011.  Strategies to prevent, treat, and provoke Corynebacterium-associated hyperkeratosis in athymic nude mice.  JAALAS 50(3):378-388. 
2) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 3 – Biology and Diseases of Mice, pp. 92-94. 
3) Percy DH and Barthold SW.  2007.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd ed.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa.  Chapter 1 – Mouse, pp. 72-73.
4) Fox JG, Barthold SW, Davisson MT, Newcomer CE, Quimby FW, Smith AL, eds.  2007.  The Mouse in Biomedical Research, 2nd edition, Volume 2 – Diseases.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 16 – Aerobic Gram-Positive Organisms, pp. 399-402.
Domain 1; Primary Species – Mouse (Mus musculus)

57

In a recent study, operation of an air filtration device in the housing unit was correlated with an increase in which of the following factors in growing chickens? 

 

a.   Growth rate
b.  Body weight
c. Splenic weight
d.  Mortality
 

d. Mortality

Reference: Pavek et al. 2010. Operation of an air filtration device results in morbidity and mortality in growing chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). JAALAS 49(5):578-582.
Domain 4; Tertiary Species - Chicken (Gallus domesticus)

58

According to the current Guide for Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, what is the recommended dry-bulb temperature range for rabbits?

61-72°F

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 9 – Biology and Diseases of Rabbits, p. 338.
2) National Research Council.  2011.  Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, 8th ed.  National Academies Press, Washington D.C.  Chapter 3 - Environment, Housing and Management, p. 44.  
Domain 5; Primary Species – Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

59

A new employee in your animal facility wants to take the Laboratory Animal Technician (LAT) AALAS certification exam. This employee is a Certified Veterinary Technician, has a Bachelor of Science in Biotechnology, and has not previously taken an AALAS certification exam. What other requirements must the employee satisfy to be eligible to take the LAT exam?

1 year of experience in laboratory animal science

1) http://www.aalas.org/certification/tech_cert.asp
2) http://www.aalas.org/pdf/Tech_Cert_handbook.pdf (p. 4)
Domain 6

60

What is the air flow rate of the biosafety cabinet pictured below?

Q image thumb

At minimum 75 linear feet per minute

Class I BSC pictured (note only one HEPA filter)

1)   Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 24 – Control of biohazards, p. 1050.
2) Center for Disease Control and Prevention. 2009. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biological Laboratories, 5th edition. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC. Appendix A: Biological Safety Cabinets, p. 292.
Domain 4

61

According to the 2007 AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia, which of the following IS NOT an approved sole means of euthanasia for Xenopus laevis?

 

a.   Benzocaine
b.   Immersion in buffered MS-222
c.   Sodium Pentobarbital
d.   Intracoelmic injection of MS-222
e.   Decapitation
 

e. Decapitation

1) Torreilles et al. 2009. Evaluation and refinement of euthanasia methods of Xenopus laevis.  JAALAS 48(5):512-516.
2) American Veterinary Medical Association.  2007.  AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia (Formerly Report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia), pp. 20, 33, (http://www.avma.org/issues/animal_welfare/euthanasia.pdf).
Domain 2; Secondary Species - African Clawed Frog (Xenopus spp.)

62

Chlorates, perchlorates, nitrates, permanganates, and peroxides are examples of chemical classes that require which hazardous signage?

Q image thumb

A (Oxidant)

1) CRC Handbook of Laboratory Safety, 5th Edition. Furr AK,  Ed., CRC , Chapter 4, pg 288-295
2) Oxidizing agent. (2010). Retrieved from Environment, Health and Safety Online: http://www.ehso.com/ChemicalStorageGuidelines.htm
Domain 5

63

Vegetative forms of gram positive and gram negative bacteria are best killed by which of the following disinfectants?

 

a. Sodium hypochlorite
b. Phenolic-based disinfectants
c. Isopropyl alcohol
d. Quaternary ammonium compounds
e. All of the above are equally effective
 

b. Phenolic-based disinfectants

Reference: Harkness JE, Turner PV, VandeWoude S, Wheler CL. 2010. Harkness and Wagner’s Biology and Medicine of Rabbits and Rodents, 5th ed. Wiley-Blackwell: Ames, IA. Chapter 1 – Introduction, General Husbandry, and Disease Prevention, p. 16.
Domain 4

64

Which of the following is a characteristic of spontaneous atrial thrombosis in hamsters?

 

a. Increased levels of C reactive protein
b. Males usually affected earlier than females
c. Marked subcutaneous edema
d. Often subclinical
e. Right auricle and atrium most commonly involved
 

c. Marked subcutaneous edema

  • "jelly hamster"!

Reference: Percy DH and Barthold SW.  2007.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd ed.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa.  Chapter 3 – Hamster, p. 202.
Domain 1; Secondary Species – Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) and Tertiary Species – Other Rodents

65

One of your technicians reports dyspnea, snuffling, and chattering in a rat. On necropsy, this is what is found. Which etiological agent is the most likely cause of these findings?

Q image thumb

Mycoplasma pulmonis

  • "cobblestone" lungs
    • classic lesion, rare in recent years
    • only seen in endstage disease
  • seen in older animals; clinically silent in young
  • other clinical signs: rales, ocular and nasal discharge, head tilt
  • may spin when held by tail if severe middel ear involvement
  • vitamin A & E deficiencies may exacerbate disease
  • ciliostasis is key to pathogenesis
     

1) Suckow MA, Weisbroth SH, and Franklin CL, eds.  2006. The Laboratory Rat, 2nd Edition.  Elsevier Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 11 – Bacterial, Mycoplasmal and Mycotic Infections, pp. 340-44, 374-378, 389-393 and Chapter 12 – Viral Disease, pp. 435-443.
2) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 4 – Biology and Diseases of Rats, pp. 137-139, 142-144.
3) Percy DH and Barthold SW.  2007.  Pathology of Laboratory Rodents and Rabbits, 3rd ed.  Blackwell Publishing: Ames, Iowa.  Chapter 2 – Rat, pp. 130-132, 134-135, 143-147, 153.
Domain 1; Primary Species – Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

66

What bacteria are responsible for this condition in swine?

Q image thumb

Toxigenic strains of 

  • Pasteurella multocida
    • strains A & D produce dermonecrotic toxin (DNT)
  • Bordatella bronchiseptica
    • also produces a DNT
  • Haemophilus parasuis

Seen in young pigs

  • 3-4 days old - severe bronchopneumonia can result
  • 1-3 months - sneezing, snuffling, progresses to violent sneezing with mucopurulent discharge, + epistaxis

Combined infections of P. multocida and B. bronchiseptica are most severe (Progressive atrophic rthinitis).

Nonprogressive atrophic rhinitis (NPAR): infections with B. bronchiseptica alone.

 

67

Which of the following is considered an acceptable euthanasia method for Xenopus laevis?

 

a.  Hypothermia
b.  Decapitation and pithing
c.  Stunning and decapitation
d.  Tricaine methane sulfonate dissolved in the water
e.  Clove oil dissolved in the water
 

d. Tricaine methane sulfonate dissolved in the water

1) American Veterinary Medical Association. 2007. AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia (Formerly Report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia), pp. 20-21, 28 (http://www.avma.org/issues/animal_welfare/euthanasia.pdf).
2) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA. Chapter 17 – Biology And Diseases of Amphibians, p. 814.
Domain 2; Secondary Species – African Clawed Frog (Xenopus spp.)

68

Skull radiographs were obtained from a squirrel monkey that presented with a large mass on its head.  What is most likely to result in hyperostosis secondary to cephalohematoma formation?

Q image thumb

Hypovitaminosis C

1)   Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds.  2002.  Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 16 – Nonhuman Primates, pp. 757; 773-775.
2) Bennet BT, Abee CR, Henrickson R, eds.  1998.  Nonhuman Primates in Biomedical Research: Diseases.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 11 – Diseases of the Musculoskeletal System, p. 436.
Domain 4; Secondary Species – Squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus)

69

Which of the following incidents is considered reportable by an Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBC) to the National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology for regulatory compliance?

 

a. Skin puncture injury with needle containing recombinant DNA (rDNA)
b. Escape of a transgenic mouse from an animal facility
c. Spills of high-risk recombinant materials outside of a biosafety cabinet
d. Performing covered work with rDNA without an approved IBC-study
e. All of the above
 

e. All of the above

Reference: NIH Guidelines For Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules. 2011. Section IV-B-2-b(7) Functions, p. 26 and Appendix G – Physical Containment, pp. 71-85
Domain 5

70

Describe unique hematology findings of the gerbil.

  • lipemic (hypercholesterolemic) on standard diets (>4% fat)
  • high proportion of polychromasia, basophilic stippling, and reticulocytosis of red cells
  • RBC half-life is 10 days
  • predeominant peripheral blood leukocyte is lymphocyte with 3-4:1 ratio over granulocytes

71

Because thermoregulatory mechanisms are poorly developed in young chicks, poults, and ducklings, higher environmental temperatures are required during the brooding period. What is the recommended initial temperature requirement for housing the species below?

 

a. 100 to 105°F
b. 95 to 100°F
c. 80 to 85°F
d. 85 to 90°F
e. 90 to 95°F
 

e. 90 to 95°F

1) Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching, 2010, Federation of Animal Science Societies, Third Edition, Chapter 9- Poultry, p116
Domain 4; Tertiary Species - Chicken (Gallus domesticus)

72

Which of the following analgesics has been reported to cause pica in rats?

 

a. Meloxicam
b. Carprofen
c. Flunixin meglumine
d. Butorphanol
e. Buprenorphine
 

e. Buprenorphine

1) Fox JG, Anderson LC, Loew FM, Quimby FW, eds. 2002. Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd edition.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 22 – Preanesthesia, Anesthesia, Analgesia, and Euthanasia, p. 961
2) Suckow MA, Weisbroth SH, Franklin CL, eds.  2006.  The Laboratory Rat, 2nd edition.  Elsevier Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 19 – Anesthesia and Analgesia, p. 650.
3) Bourque et al. 2010. Comparison of buprenorphine and meloxicam for postsurgical analagesia in rats: effects on body weight, locomotor activity, and hemodynamic parameters. JAALAS 49(5):617-622.
Domain 2; Primary Species - Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

73

For what purpose was the depicted equipment designed?

Q image thumb

Environmental enrichment (resting board for mice)

1) http://www.ratloft.com/models.aspx
2) Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. 2011.  Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, National Research Council, National Academy of Sciences. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. p. 53.
Domain 4; Primary Species - Mouse

74

To establish a foundation mouse colony of an outbred stock, what is the minimum number of breeders needed, with each breeder from different litters?

30

Reference: Fox JG, Barthold SW, Davisson MT, Newcomer CE, Quimby FW, Smith AL, eds.  2007.  The Mouse in Biomedical Research, 2nd edition, Volume 3 – Normative Biology, Husbandry, and Models.  Academic Press: San Diego, CA.  Chapter 8 – Management and Design: Breeding Facilities, pp. 254-255.
Domain 4; Primary Species – Mouse (Mus musculus)