204 - test 3 - nutrition, metabolism, and temperature regulation Flashcards Preview

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Monosaccharides

Glucose, fructose, galactose

1

Disaccharides

Sucrose (table sugar), maltose, lactose (milk sugar)

2

Polysaccharides (complex carbs)

Starch, glycogen, cellulose

3

Lipids

Fat (solid), oil (liquids)

4

Neutral fats (triglycerides)

Fatty acids and glycerol.

5

Cholesterol

Complex lipid-soluble, stable molecule.

6

Phospholipids

Two fatty acids bound with phosphorous

7

Essential fatty acids

Polyunsaturated lipid chains obtainable through the diet

8

Proteins

Long chains of amino acids in a specific order

9

Amino acids are either.....

Essential (must be obtained in the diet) or non-essential (can be synthesized by the body.)

10

Complete proteins - def and examples.

Foods with contain all essential amino acids. (Like milk, meats, eggs, a grain plus a bean.)

11

Vitamins

Large, complex organic molecules needed by body cells but not synthesized (made) by cells.

12

Vitamins - source

Plans or animals.

13

Fat soluble vitamins

D-E-A-K

14

Water soluble vitamins

C+b vitamins

15

Antioxidant vitamins

A, c, e

16

Minerals

Inorganic elements needed by body cells.

17

Major minerals (bone components)

Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium.

18

Trace minerals

Only tiny amounts are needed..like iron, iodine, zinc, etc

19

Metabolism

Study of chemical reactions involved in producing and storing energy, synthesizing compounds, and regulating these.

20

Anabolism

Reactions that build up large molecules from smaller ones

21

Catabolism

Reactions that break down molecules into smaller ones

22

Coupled reactions

Using energy releases from catabolic reactions to drive anabolic reactions

23

Glycolysis -

Enzymatic catabolism of glucose

24

Acetyl co a formation (only with 02)

Each pyruvic acid loses a c02, and energy rich h's form Acetyl.

25

Citric acid cycle

Enzymatic breakdown of the products of glycolysis.

26

Electron transport chain

Energy rich h's from glycolysis mode down a staircase of enzymes. Releases large amounts of energy.

27

Lipogenesis

Lipid production

28

Trans animation

Transferring an amino group from an amino acid to a ketoacid to synthesize nonessential amino acids.

29

Glycogenolysis

Breakdown of glycogen, forming glucose.