22.3 Adrenal Hormones Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 22.3 Adrenal Hormones Deck (46):
1

What is the function of the adrenal medulla?

1. secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine
2. participate with the sympathetic response system

2

What type of hormones are secreted from the cortex of the adrenal gland directly in to the blood?

1. mineralcorticoids
2. glucocorticoids
3. androgenic hormones

3

What layer are the cortisol and androgens secreted from?

1. cortex, made of the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis

4

What area of the adrenal gland is the catecholamines secreted from?

1. adrenal medulla

5

What is the rate limiting step for forming corticosteroids from cholesterol?

1. cholesterol desmolase

6

What will increase the LDL receptors that will contribute to increasing the production of corticosteroids?

1. Adrenocorticothyroid hormone, with angiotensin II increase conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone

7

What is the main glucocorticoid?

cortisol, generally released in response to stress

8

WHat controls the release of cortisol?

adrenocortiotropic hormone from the anterior pituitary gland. This upregulates its own receptor and will increase the release of cAMP/

9

Where is cortisol secreted from?

zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex.

10

When is cortisol highest in concentration and lowest in concentration?

1. highest before waking
2. lowest in the evening

11

What group of hormones can dehydroepiandrosteron and androstenedione clumped into?

1. androgenic hormones

12

18-carbon steroids have what type of activity?

1. estrogenic activity

13

19-carbon steroids have what type of activity?

testosterone activity

14

Where are the androgenic hormones secreted from?

zona reticularis

15

What can lack of aldosterone lead to?

1. death due to lack of mineralocorticoids and electrolyte imbalance

16

Why are mineralocorticoids important for survival?

1. prevent increased levels of potassium, and loss of NaCl.
2. this will prevent hypovolemic shock
3. also prevents hyperkalemia and cardiac toxicity as secondary symptom/sign

17

What is the effect of excess aldosterone secretion?

1. increased arterial pressure
2. hypokalemia, muscle weakness
3. increas potassium transport into cell bodies generating alkalosis, by exchanging H ion for K ion in intercalated cells.

18

What is the primary function of glucocorticoids?

1. initiate gluconeogenesis.
2. increases lipolysis

19

What is secreted from the zona glomerulosa?

1. mineralocorticoids, regulate BP and electrolyte balance

20

Corticosteroids are derivatives of what and attach to what?

1. form from cholesterol and attach to coated pits

21

What must be present to convert cholesterol to corticosteroids?

1. sholesterol desmolase (rate limiting step) which produces pregnenolone in the mitochondria

22

What can increase the activity of cholesterol desmolase?

ACTH, and angiotensin II. produce more pregnenolone

23

What effect will mineralocorticoids have on electrolytes?

1. sodium reabsorption increased
2. hyperkalemia increases aldosterone
3. aldosterone increases potassium secretion by kidney
4. aldosterone increase H ion secretion by kidney

24

What controls the secretion of mineralocorticoids?

1. angiotensin II and potassium

25

What is the major glucocorticoid?

cortisol

26

What controls the release of glucocorticoids?

1. Adrenocorticothyroid hormone, activate cAMP to increase stimulation of glucocorticoid secretion from the zona fasciculata

27

Which hormone oscillates with circadian rhythm. is high in the morning and low before bed?

cortisol

28

What is DHEA, dehydroepiandrosterone?

precursor that becomes testosterone in the testis

29

What must happen to precursors to form estrogen?

oxidation in the ovary which forms an 18-carbon steroid

30

Which steroids are precursors for testosterone?

19-carbon steroids

31

What can lack of aldosterone produce?

1. hyperkalemia
2. reduced ECF and blood volume
3. hypovolemic shock
4.rapid loss of sodium and chloride via urine

32

What can excess aldosterone produce?

1. increase ECF and blood volume
2. hypokalemia/ muscle fatigue
3. transport K ion into the cells
4.cause alkalosis. due to exchange for Na ions in renal system

33

What is the major overall effect of aldosterone?

1. reabsorption of Na and secretion of K ions

34

What are the 6 steps to promote sodium reabsorption via aldosterone?

1. aldosterone diffuse into tubular epithelial cells
2. combine with mineralocorticoid receptor protein
3. receptor-hormone complex fuse into nucleus
4. RNA is transcribed into Na-K ATPase pumps
5. spithelial sodium channels transcribed

35

What hormones can directly increase aldosterone secretions?

1. increased K concentration
2. increased angiotensin II
3.ACTH required but independent of aldosterone secretion

36

What hormone has little to no effect on the rate of secretion of aldosterone

adrenocorticothyroid hormone

37

What is the main function of glucocorticoids?

stimulate gluconeogenesis, and can contribute to adrenal diabetes

38

How do glucocorticoids resist inflammation?

1. prevent release of serotonin and histamine
2. block anaphylactic response
3.block IL-2 production
4. reduce eosinophils/lymphocytes in blood

39

What is primary addison's disease?

injury to adrenal cortex causing hypoadrenalism

40

What is secondary addison's disease?

impaired function of the pituitary gland causes hypoadrenalism

41

What can a mineralocorticoid deficiency cause?

1. hyponatremia, hypokalemia
2. acidosis
3. RBC increase
4. reduced cardiac output
5. metabolic acidosis

42

What can a glucocorticoid deficiency cause?

1. hypoglycemia
2.protein and fat reduction
3. weight loss
4. muscle weakness
5. stress suscpetibility

43

What results in an uneven distribution of pigmentation across the skin?

melanin pigmentation abnormality from hypoadrenalism.Overproduced melanin stimulating hormone

44

What is cushing's disease?

hyperadrenalism

45

What are causes of cushing's disease?

1. glucocorticoid
2. pituitary gland adenoma
3. hypothalamus abnormality
4. adrenal cortex adenoma
5.excess ACTH secretion

46

What are common characteristics of cushing's syndrome?

1. moon face
2. acne/hirsutism
3. increased BG
4. HTN
5.protein catabolism