25.3 Male Reproductive Flashcards Preview

Zach's Physiology Card > 25.3 Male Reproductive > Flashcards

Flashcards in 25.3 Male Reproductive Deck (50):
1

What is the spermatgonesesis pathway?

1. Primordial germ cells
2. Spermatogonia: in testes, mitotic at puberty
3. Primary spermatocytes: complete 2nd half of mitosis
4. Secondary spermatocytes: finish 2md half of mitosis
5. Spermatids:undergo differentiation to become mature sperm

2

Where are Sertoli cells and what are their functions?

1. Surround primary spermatocytes and help with spermatgonesesis.
2. Form estrogens from testosterone

3

What role do the Sertoli cells have in the spermatgonesesis pathway?

1. Surround primary spermatocytes.
2. Help regulate the rate and coordinating the process of spermatgonesesis

4

Where are the mitochondria located in the mature sperm?

1. Spirally wrapped around the neck and body

5

What is the purpose of multiple mitochondria linked in the neck and body of the sperm?

Provide energy for the movement of microtbulules

6

What does the proacrosomal vesicle develop into and what is contained in this region?

1. Acrosome
2. Contain hyaluronidase and proteolytic enzymes

7

What happens to the head of the sperm during spermatogenesis?

1. Nucleus condenses and is capped by the acrosome
2. Distal centrioles organize flagellum
3. Mitochondria move to base around flagellum
4. Excess cytoplasm is sloughed off

8

What begins to organize the flagellum?

1. The distal centrioles that are on opposite side of acrosome

9

How long must sperm remain in the epididymis before they gain motility?

18-24 hours

10

Where are cells of leydig found?

Interstitial space of testes

11

What is the function of the leydig cells?

Secrete testosterone

12

What activates the cells of leydig to secrete testosterone?

1. Leutinizing hormone (LH)

13

What signals are required for spermatogenesis?

LH, FSH, testosterone

14

What are the male accessory glands?

1. Seminal vesicles
2. Prostate gland

15

Where are the seminal vesicles and what do they do?

1. Behind prostate
2.secretory epithelium, releasing secretions at ejaculation

16

What is the mucoid material that is secreted from the seminal vesicles?

1. Fructose
2. Citric acid
3. Prostaglandin
Fibrinogen

17

Where do the seminal vesicles empty?

Into ejaculatory ducts

18

How much of the content of semen is produced by the seminal vesicles?

60% total semen content

19

What is the action of prostaglandins being contained in high amounts in the semen?

1. Promote sperm movement in cervical area
2. Induce retro-peristaltic contraction of uterus and Fallopian tubes

20

Why would prostaglandins inducing retro-peristaltic contraction of the uterus and Fallopian tubes be beneficial?

1. Helps the sperm to migrate to the egg, for fertilization

21

How much of the semen content comes from the prostate gland?

30% of semen content

22

What does the prostate gland secrete during ejaculation?

1. Calcium, citrate, phosphate ions.
2. Clotting enzyme, profibrinolysin

23

Where does the alkaline fluid in the semen come from?

The prostate gland. To neutralize the seminal fluids

24

What is an androgen?

Steroid hormone with masculinizing effect

25

What hormones are androgens?

1. Testosterone
2. Dihydrotestosterone
3. Androstenedione

26

What is testosterone?

And androgen steroid that has a masculinizing effect

27

What is dihydrotestosterone?

Androgen steroid that has a masculinizing effect

28

What is androstenedione?

Androgen steroid that has a masculinizing effect

29

What are androgens synthesized from?

Cholesterol and acetyl-CoA formed in testes and adrenal glands

30

Where are androgens synthesized?

Testes and adrenal glands.
Specifically from the cholesterol and acetyl-CoA

31

Where is testosterone formed by?

Cells of leydig.

32

When are cells of leydig most prevalent and least prevalent?

1. Numerous in newborn and male after puberty
2. Nonexistent in testes during childhood.

33

What protein does testosterone loosely bind to?

1. Albumin

34

What protein is tightly bound with testosterone after the hormone is secreted?

Beta-globulin tightly binds with testosterone

35

What is the majority of testosterone that enters tissue?

Dihydrotestosterone. Highly present in external genitalia and fetal external genitalia

36

Where is circulating testosterone converted to androsterone and dehydroepiandrosterone?

In the liver

37

What does the liver convert circulating testosterone into?

Androsterone and dehydroepiandrosterone

38

How can circulating testosterone be excreted form the body?

1. Into the GI via bile
2. Urine through kidney

39

What can circulating testosterone be conjugated into?

1. Glucuronides and sulfates

40

What are different functions that testosterone can be contributed to ?

1. Hair pattern growth
2. Larynx hypertrophy
3. Increase skin thickness
4.enlarge external genitalia

41

What effect with testosterone have on BMR?

Increase BMR

42

What effect will testosterone have on hematocrit?

Increase

43

What will testosterone do to the distal kidney tubule's?

Increase sodium reabsorption

44

What is the function of gonadotropin-releasing hormone?

Similar to LH hormone,
1. Stimulate anterior pituitary to release LH and FSH
2. From arcuate nuclei of hypothalamus

45

What is the function of leutinizing hormone?

1. Glycoprotein
2. Activates cAMP
3. Activate Sertoli cells to secrete testosterone

46

What effect does testosterone have on the hypothalamus?

Negative feedback, which inhibits the release of GRH which reduces the amount of LH and FSH released

47

What is inhibin?

Hormone from the Sertoli cells
1. Prevents FSH secretion from the anterior pituitary

48

Which hormone does inhibin act the strongest on?

FSH

49

Which hormone does inhibin have a relatively weak effect on inhibiting?

Gonadotropin releasing hormone

50

Describe the pathway of a sperm from seminiferous tubule's to the vas deferens?

1. Semiferous tubules
2. Rete testis
3. Efferent ductus
4. Tail of epididymis
5.vas deferens