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Flashcards in Ventilatory system Deck (89)
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1

What is the carina?

-bifurcation of primary bronchi
-produce cough reflex

2

What are the three branches of the bronchi and what do they supply?

-primary: supply lungs
-Secondary: supply lobes
-Tertiary: supply lobules

3

What are the inspiratory muscles?

-diaphragm
-ext. intercostal muscles
-sternomastoids
-serratus anterior
-scalene

4

What are the expiratory muscle?

-abdominal and internal costals produce forceful expiration.
-generally passive at rest.

5

What are the branchings of the bronchioles?

-terminal and respiratory
-with smooth muscle but no cartilage

6

At what point in the respiratory tract do we begin to gain control of the amount of air we can take in?

The area of where we start to gain control of how much air is being passed for respiration.

7

Define total lung capacity.

-maximum volume of gas the lungs can hold

8

What helps to form the total lung capacity?

-non overlapping compartments form lung volumes

9

Tidal volume is what and what volume?

500mL
volume inspired and expired with breathing

10

Inspiratory reserve volume?

-3000mL
-amount of air that can be inspired in addition to tidal volume
-requires forced inspiration to do so

11

Expiratory reserve volume?

-1100mL
-amount of air expired at end of tidal volume by forced expiration

12

Residual volume?

1200mL
-amount of air remaining in the pulmonary system after forced expiration

13

Vital capacity?

4600mL
-sum of all air inspired/expired
-max inspiration to max expiration

14

Total lung capacity

sum of all volumes.
- includes vital capacity + residual volume

15

Inspiratory capacity?

sum of volume above resting capacity
-therefore is tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume

16

Functional residual capacity

-expiratory reserve volume + residual volume

the sum of volume below resting capacity

17

Describe minute volume and the equation to describe it.

-volume of gases moved in or out of lungs per minute
- V= breath per minute * tidal volume

18

What is alveolar ventilation and the equation to describe it?

-volume of gases that enter spaces participating in gas exchange per minute
- (bpm)*(TV-DS)

19

What is anatomic dead space?

-the space where air remains in the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles

20

What is physiological dead space?

-anatomic dead space+ventilated alveoli with poor perfusion

21

What is pleural pressure?

-fluid between parietal and visceral pleura

22

What is alveolar pressure?

-pressure inside the alveoli

23

The transpulmonary pressure?

-difference between the alveolar pressure and the pleural pressure

24

Total tidal volume is 0.5L so what is the amount of respirated and perfused alveoli in normal individual with dead space of .15L?

-0.35L

25

The amount of CO2 in the arterial blood will be equal to what?

arterial CO2 level equals the amount of CO2 in the lungs

26

How can we verify that dead space is the eqaution that is used?

-dead space air does not participate in exchange and has negligible CO2
-blood gases equilibrate during gas exchange in capillaries, therefore blood CO2 equals the CO2 in region of the lungs

27

What happens to the pressure in the alveoli during inspiration/ expiration?

-inspiration: decrease of pressure
-expiration: increase of pressure

28

What is the compliance of the lungs?

-the extent to which lungs will expand for each unit incrase in transpulmonary pressure

29

Compliance is a measure of what?

-the expansibility of the lungs and the trachea

30

What is a major component that allows the lungs to function normally in air, and not at all in water?

Saline helps to reduce the amount of surface tension that opposes the movement of the lungs