Flashcards in Lecture 6. General Sensory Deck (34):
What is the minimum distance that can be discriminated as two separate points of contact?
What is lateral inhibition important for?
blocking the lateral spread of excitatory signals
Where does lateral inhibition occur?
1. each level of major synapse
-dorsal column nuclei
-ventrobasal nuclei of thalamus
What would happen if our brains did not have lateral inhibition present?
We would not be able to distinguish between two adjacent points of stimulus. would be perceived as one point
What is the fasciculus gracilis?
area in the dorsal medial column of the spinal cord carrying axons from lower limbs
What is the fasciculus cuneatus?
The dorsal lateral portion of the spinal cord that carries axons from upper limbs
Where do axons of the fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus synapse?
What are the secondary neurons of he lemniscal tract called and where do they run?
1. paired tracts called the medial lemniscus
2. from medulla to the basolateral nucleus in thalamus
3. these decussate
Where do the tertiary neurons run, in the medial lemniscal pathway?
from thalamus, through the internal capsule to the somatosensory cortex
What type of pain is felt after 0.1 seconds of stimuli, and is mostly superficial?
Which stimuli does fast pain respond to?
mechanical and thermal stimuli
What fibers are fast pain carried on?
Where do fast pain fibers terminate?
A-delta fibers terminate in lamina marginalis (I) in dorsal horn of spinal cord
Which pain begins after 1 second of stimuli application?
slow pain, if persistent with the stimulus, the response will continue
What can elicit a slow pain response?
mechanical, thermal, chemical stimuli
What type of pain is carried by type C fibers?
Where do type C fibers terminate?
slow pain fibers terminate in layers II and III (substantia gelatinosa) of dorsal horns of spinal cord
Which of the nerve fiber types are unmyelinated?
Type C (IV) fibers
All others are myelinated
Where do pain fibers decussate?
At the synapse of the primary and secondary neurons, in the dorsal horn of spinal cord
What forms the neospinothalamic tract, and where does it terminate?
1. fast pain fibers that terminate in the ventrobasal nuclei of thalamus
What forms the paleospinothalamic pathway, and where doe they terminate?
1. consists of slow pain fibers.
2. terminate in the brainstem
What NT is used by A-delta fibers?
What NT is used by Type C fibers?
glutamate, substance P
In brown-sequard syndrome what functions will be ipsilaterally lost?
kinesthetics, position sensation, vibration sensation, discrete localization, two-point discrimination below the transection
In brown-sequard syndrome what functions will contralaterally be lost?
pain, heat, and cold 2-6 dermatome regions below the transection
What helps to form the analgesia system?
1. periaquaductal gray and periventricular regions of brainstem and 3rd ventricle
2. raphe magnus nucleus and reticular nuclei in medulla
3. pain inhibitory complex in the dorsal horn of spinal cord
What fibers is warm sensation transmitted over?
Type C fibers
What fibers transmit cold sensation?
small A-delta, much more numerous than warm receptors
What is referred pain?
stimulation of visceral pain fibers, that in turn stimulate some receptors on the surface of the skin
Visceral pain from thoracic and abdominal cavities travel on what fibers?
What stimuli can excite visceral pain nerve endings?
What visceral areas are insensitive to any pain type?
1. liver parenchyma
2. alveoli of lungs
If the liver parenchyma is not able to generate pain, then where does pain associated with the liver come from?
- liver capsule and bile ducts are sensitive to trauma and stretching