Lecture 6. General Sensory Flashcards Preview

Zach's Physiology Card > Lecture 6. General Sensory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 6. General Sensory Deck (34):
1

What is the minimum distance that can be discriminated as two separate points of contact?

2 mm

2

What is lateral inhibition important for?

blocking the lateral spread of excitatory signals

3

Where does lateral inhibition occur?

1. each level of major synapse
-dorsal column nuclei
-ventrobasal nuclei of thalamus
-somatosensory cortex

4

What would happen if our brains did not have lateral inhibition present?

We would not be able to distinguish between two adjacent points of stimulus. would be perceived as one point

5

What is the fasciculus gracilis?

area in the dorsal medial column of the spinal cord carrying axons from lower limbs

6

What is the fasciculus cuneatus?

The dorsal lateral portion of the spinal cord that carries axons from upper limbs

7

Where do axons of the fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus synapse?

lower medulla

8

What are the secondary neurons of he lemniscal tract called and where do they run?

1. paired tracts called the medial lemniscus
2. from medulla to the basolateral nucleus in thalamus
3. these decussate

9

Where do the tertiary neurons run, in the medial lemniscal pathway?

from thalamus, through the internal capsule to the somatosensory cortex

10

What type of pain is felt after 0.1 seconds of stimuli, and is mostly superficial?

fast pain

11

Which stimuli does fast pain respond to?

mechanical and thermal stimuli

12

What fibers are fast pain carried on?

A-delta fibers

13

Where do fast pain fibers terminate?

A-delta fibers terminate in lamina marginalis (I) in dorsal horn of spinal cord

14

Which pain begins after 1 second of stimuli application?

slow pain, if persistent with the stimulus, the response will continue

15

What can elicit a slow pain response?

mechanical, thermal, chemical stimuli

16

What type of pain is carried by type C fibers?

slow pain

17

Where do type C fibers terminate?

slow pain fibers terminate in layers II and III (substantia gelatinosa) of dorsal horns of spinal cord

18

Which of the nerve fiber types are unmyelinated?

Type C (IV) fibers
All others are myelinated

19

Where do pain fibers decussate?

At the synapse of the primary and secondary neurons, in the dorsal horn of spinal cord

20

What forms the neospinothalamic tract, and where does it terminate?

1. fast pain fibers that terminate in the ventrobasal nuclei of thalamus

21

What forms the paleospinothalamic pathway, and where doe they terminate?

1. consists of slow pain fibers.
2. terminate in the brainstem

22

What NT is used by A-delta fibers?

glutamate

23

What NT is used by Type C fibers?

glutamate, substance P

24

In brown-sequard syndrome what functions will be ipsilaterally lost?

kinesthetics, position sensation, vibration sensation, discrete localization, two-point discrimination below the transection

25

In brown-sequard syndrome what functions will contralaterally be lost?

pain, heat, and cold 2-6 dermatome regions below the transection

26

What helps to form the analgesia system?

1. periaquaductal gray and periventricular regions of brainstem and 3rd ventricle
2. raphe magnus nucleus and reticular nuclei in medulla
3. pain inhibitory complex in the dorsal horn of spinal cord

27

What fibers is warm sensation transmitted over?

Type C fibers

28

What fibers transmit cold sensation?

small A-delta, much more numerous than warm receptors

29

What is referred pain?

stimulation of visceral pain fibers, that in turn stimulate some receptors on the surface of the skin

30

Visceral pain from thoracic and abdominal cavities travel on what fibers?

Type C

31

What stimuli can excite visceral pain nerve endings?

g

32

What visceral areas are insensitive to any pain type?

1. liver parenchyma
2. alveoli of lungs

33

If the liver parenchyma is not able to generate pain, then where does pain associated with the liver come from?

- liver capsule and bile ducts are sensitive to trauma and stretching

34

If the alveoli are not able to generate pain then where does pain associated with that area come from?

- pain comes from the bronchi and parietal pleura