Lecture 7: vision I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 7: vision I Deck (86):
1

Refraction?

bending of light waves at an angulated surface of transient material

2

What can alter the degree of refraction?

- ratio of two reflective indices
- degree of angle between interface and entering wave light

3

What is refractive index?

- ratio of velocity of light in air: velocity of light traveling in substance

4

What is refractive Power?

- measure of how much a lens bends light waves. measure in diopters

5

What is focal Point?

- point where all parallel rays converge after passing through the lens

6

What is focal length?

- distance from center of lens to the focal point

7

Describe how the depth of focus of the lens changes?

The depth of focus is inversely related to the size of the pupil diameter

8

What is Emmetropia?

- eye has normal depth of focus
-when ciliary muscles relax distant object light rays sharply focus on the retina

9

What is hyperopia?

- farsightedness
-distant objects seen clearly
- caused by eyeball that is too short

10

What is Myopia?

- nearsightedness

11

What causes light rays to converge in from of the retina?

- myopia
- caused by eyeball that is too long

12

What is the maximum visual acuity for two-point sources?

1.5 to 2 mm

13

What is visual acuity?

measures the resolving power of eye
- eye chart test

14

Where does the aqueous humor come from?

ciliary processes

15

In order to pull the aqueous humor into the anterior chamber, what is the environment like?

it would be high osmolarity. High concentration of ions to draw fluid through via osmosis

16

What is glaucoma?

Increased intraocular pressure that will lead to damage of the optic nerve and potentially vision loss, if not corrected

17

What is the photosenstivie pigment of rods?

rhodopsin

18

What is the photosensitive pigment in cones?

contain three different pigments

19

What two components join together to form rhodopsin?

scotopsin and 11-cis retinal

20

What happens when rhodopsin is exposed to light waves?

the cis is converted to trans and does not have the proper orientation to bind with scotopsin
- forms bathorhodopsin

21

What is activated rhodopsin and what does it do?

- metarhodopsin II
- excites electrical charges in rods that signal to optic nerve potential

22

Degradation of metarhodopsin II produces what compounds?

- all trans retinal and scotopsin
- isomerize with isomerase to the cis form

23

How can increased levels of Vitamin A be helpful with vision?

Vitamin A is isomerized to 11-cis retinol and converted to 11-cis retinal

24

What is the resulting receptor potential when the rods are exposed to light?

increasing negativity. hyperpolarizing

25

Why does activation of rhodopsin cause hyperpolarization?

- the decompensation of rhodopsin decreases the rod membrane conductance for Na ions, in the outer segment of the rod.
- and the rod is continually pumping Na ions out of the membrane

26

Explain how a -40 mV potential is generated in the rod in a normal dark condition?

- cGMP gated channels are open and allow leaking of Na ions back inside the rod membrane

27

In what conditions are you likely to find a hyperpolarized rod, and a less polarized rod?

- hyperpolarized: in light conditions
- non polarized: in dark conditions

28

What is light adaptation?

- results in the reduction of rhodopsin and photosensitive chemicals
- reduces the sensitivity of the eye to light

29

What is dark adaptation?

- results in low light and the accumulation of rhodopsin and other light sensitive pigments
- increases the sensitivity of the eye to light

30

How do we perceive color?

- based on the mixing ratio of blue, green , red stimulation of the cones

31

Green and red cones are required to see what colors?

- green
- yellow
- orange
- red

32

Blue, green and red cones are required to see what colors?

- violet
- blue
- green

33

What is protanope?

loss of red cones

34

What is deuteranope?

- loss of green cones

35

What is loss of blue cones?

- blue weakness

36

What are the different neuronal cell types of the retina from superficial to deep?

- rods and cones
- horizontal cells
- bipolar cells
- amacrine cells
- ganglion cells

37

Where do rods and cones synapse?

- bipolar and horizontal cells

38

What is the function of horizontal cells?

- transmit signal from outer plexiform layer to horizontally from rods and cones to the bipolar cells

39

What is the function of bipolar cells?

- transmit signal from rods, cones, horizontal cells to inner plexiform layer
- synapse with ganglion and amacrine cells

40

What is the function of amacrine cells?

- transmit signal from bipolar to ganglion cells
- send signal across inner plexiform layer

41

What is the function of the ganglion cells?

- transmit signal from retina to the optic nerve

42

What is the interplexiform cell?

- transmits retrograde signal from inner to outer plexiform layer
- inhibitory and control lateral spread of vision

43

What neurons are in the foveal region direct pathway (aka: fast cone system)?

- cones
- bipolar cells
- ganglion cells

44

What four neurons purely make up rod vision?

- rods
- bipolar cells
- amacrine cells
- ganglion cells

45

What neurotransmitter is released at the synapse of rods/cones and bipolar cells?

glutatmate

46

Amacrine cells secrete what neurotransmitters that are all inhibitory?

- GABA
- glycine
- dopamine
- acetylcholine
- indolamine

47

Which neurons are the only ones that will transmit their visual signals as an action potential?

- ganglion cells

48

What is the importance of electrotonic conduction within the eyes?

- this process allows for rods and cones to respond to varying levels of lighting
- eliminates the all or none action potential

49

With the diverse amount of amacrine cells, what if the most likely function common to them?

- interneurons that analyze visual signals before they leave the retina

50

If an amacrine cell is directionally sensitive, what does that mean?

- responds to movement of a spot across the retina

51

What is the effect of fewer rods and cones converging on an optic nerve at the fovea?

- increased visual acuity
- the central fovea only contains slender cones (increases visual acuity)

52

The absence of rods at the central fovea reduces what aspect of sight, at this area?

- sensitivity to weak light.

53

Why is the peripheral retina more sensitive to weak light?

- multiple rods converge on an optic nerve

54

Which type of retinal ganglion cells are important for crude rod vision in dark conditions?

- type W

55

What types of signals are sent from the type W ganglion cells?

- slow velocity
- excitation from rods
- transmit by bipolar and amacrine cells

56

Color vision most likely comes from what retinal ganglion cells?

- X

57

What type of signals can be represented by type X ganglion cells?

- fine detailed images on discrete retinal locations
- due to fact that cells receive input from one or more cones

58

What is characteristic about the Y ganglion cells?

- responds to rapid changes in vision
- most likely to apprise the CNS of new visual activity with low accuracy

59

What portions of the optic nerves cross at the optic chiasm?

nasal halves of the retina

60

What visual fields compose the left optic tract and where does it synapse at?

- the left lateral field and right nasal field
- synapse in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in the thalamus

61

What visual fields compose the right optic tract and where will it synapse?

- the right lateral field and the left nasal field
- synapse in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus

62

From the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus where do optic fibers pass to provide vision?

- geniculocalacrine fibers move too the primary visual cortex via optic radiation

63

Where is the primary visual cortex located?

- the calcarine fissure of the medial occipital lobe

64

What are the two primary functions of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus?

- relay visual information from optic tract to visual cortex via optic radiation
- regulates amount of signals that pass to the cortex.

65

The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus receives signals from the lateral half of the ipsilateral retina on what layers?

- layers II, III, V

66

What visual fields do layers I, IV, and VI of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus receive?

- medial field of the contralateral eye

67

What fields of view do layers II, III, V of the DLGN receive?

- lateral ipsilateral views

68

What is contained in layers I and II of the DLGN?

- magnocellular layers
- input from Y ganglion cells
- rapid conduction of visual cortex
- black and white only; poor point to point transmission

69

What are layers III and IV of the DLGN, and what do they respond to?

- parvocellular layers
- input from X ganglion
- transmit color
- accurate point to point transmission

70

What is the source of DLGN transmission gating?

- corticofugal fibers from primary visual cortex
- reticular area of mesencephalon
- both are inhibitory and highlight visual information that is allowed to pass

71

The primary cortex contains an region where the macular area of sight terminates. Where is that?

- near the occipital pole

72

Where do signals from the peripheral retina terminate?

- concentric half anterior to pole, still within the calcarine fissure

73

Where do geniculocalcarine fibers terminate in the primary visual cortex?

- layer IV

74

Type Y ganglion fibers terminate in what layer of the primary visual cortex?

- layer IVc alpha

75

Type X ganglion fibers terminate in what layer of the primary visual cortex?

- layer IVc beta and IVa

76

After passing into the primary cortex where do signals next encounter?

- brodmanns' area 18
- here the signals are analyzed for visual meaning

77

In layer IV of the cortical area, images are analyzed to help adjust what?

- directional gaze of each eye
- used in stereopsis

78

"Complex cells" are able to detect what?

- detect line orientation when a line is displaced laterally or vertically in the visual field

79

"Simple" cells are able to detect what and are located where?

- able to detect orientation of lines, and different orientations stimulate different sets of cells
- these cells are found in the layer IV of primary visual cortex

80

What is the autonomic nerve pathway of the eye starting with the synapse from the pretectal region?

- preganglionic fibers arise in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus and pass with CN III to synapse in ciliary ganglion
- ciliary ganglion synapse converts to postganlgionic parasympathetic fibers that move through ciliary nerves to the eyeball

81

What are the actions of the ciliary postganglionic ciliary nerves of the eye?

- excite the ciliary muscle to control accommodation
- control the sphincter that constricts the pupil

82

When the lens in spherical what are the ciliary muscles doing?

- contracted
- long distance objects

83

When the ciliary muscles contract, what type of shape does the lens take on?

- spherical
- objects at short distance

84

What two fibers are under control of ciliary nerves (CN III)?

- meridional fibers that contract and release lens tension, forming a sphere
- circular fibers that also decrease lens tension

85

What is presbyopia and when does it occur?

- loss of the ability to accommodate
- occurs by 45-70 y/o
- due to lens thickening and becoming larger

86

What is the effect of the larger and thicker lens in elderly individuals

- presbyopia
- loss of accommodation to significant degree