Flashcards in 2.3 Eukaryotic Cells Deck (14):
State the function of the plasma membrane
Selectively permeable membrane which controls what enters and leaves the cell.
State the function of lysosomes
Vesicle containing digestive enzymes which can digest old organelles, or the entire cell itself.
State the function of the Golgi apparatus
Flattened membrane bound sacs (vesicles). Sort, store, and modify secretory products. Modify proteins into glycoproteins.
State the function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
Ribosomes sit on the surface, synthesising extracellular proteins.
State the function of the nucleus
Contains generic information (DNA) which controls cell activity.
State the function of 80s ribosomes
Synthesise proteins for use within the cell.
State the function of mitochondria
Site of aerobic respiration.
Compare the structure of prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Prokaryotes have free organelles, while eukaryotes have membrane bound organelles.
Compare three differences in DNA between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
In prokaryotes the DNA is free within the cytoplasm, while in eukaryotes it is found in the nucleus. In prokaryotes the DNA is circular, while in eukaryotes it is linear. In prokaryotes it is naked, while in eukaryotes it is packaged around proteins.
Compare the components of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotic cells have 70s ribosomes, while eukaryotic cells have 80s ribosomes. Prokaryotic cells contain plasmids, while eukaryotic cells contain mitochondria.
Compare the reproduction of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotes reproduced through asexual binary fission, while eukaryotes reproduce through asexual mitosis or sexual meiosis.
Outline the role of an extracellular component in plants.
The cell wall provides support, and prevents the cell from bursting under osmotic pressure. It serves as a barrier against infection by pathogens.
State three differences between plant and animal cells
Plants have cellulose cell wall, causing more rectangular shape, whereas animal cells have no cell wall, causing amorphous shape. Animal cells have lysosomes and centrioles, plant cells have a large vacuole. Plants store excess glucose as starch, animals as glycogen.