3.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids And Proteins Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids And Proteins Deck (23):
1

Distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds

Organic compounds are compounds which are found in living organisms and contain carbon. Inorganic compounds are those which do not contain carbon.

2

State three compounds which fit the definition of organic compounds, but are classified as inorganic

Carbonates, hydrogen carbonates and oxides of carbon.

3

State three kinds of organic compounds

Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins.

4

State three kinds of inorganic compounds

Minerals, metals, salts.

5

Outline the structure of ribose

Pentose sugar. Five carbons, four in a ring.

6

Outline the structure of glucose

Hexose sugar. Six carbons, five in a ring.

7

Outline the structure of an amino acid

Central carbon + hydrogen + amino group + carboxyl group + variable 'R' group.

8

Outline the structure of fatty acids

Carboxyl group + long hydrocarbon chain. Chain length ranges from 4-30 carbons.

9

List three monosaccharides

Glucose, Galactose, Fructose.

10

List three disaccharides

Lactose, Maltose, Sucrose.

11

List three polysaccharides

Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose.

12

Outline the function of glucose

Source of energy which can be broken down to form ATP via cell respiration.

13

Outline the function of lactose

Sugar found in milk, provides energy for young mammals.

14

Outline the function of glycogen

Used for short term energy storage (between meals), stored in muscles and liver.

15

Outline the function of fructose

Make fruit sweet, attracts animals who eat fruit and spread seeds.

16

Outline the function of sucrose

Transportable energy form for plants, transported in solution.

17

Outline the function of cellulose

Main component of cell wall, makes plants strong.

18

Outline condensation

Molecules are covalently joined together, water is formed as a by-product. In carbohydrates, the bonds is a glycosidic bond. The reaction is brought about by an enzyme.

19

Outline hydrolysis

A water molecule splits the covalent bond between two molecule. Reverse of condensation; chains of carbohydrates broken down into their smaller components. Brought about by an enzyme (different from condensation).

20

State three functions of lipids

Buoyancy
-Lipids are less dense than water, helping animals to float.
Insulation
-Fats in animals can serve as heat insulators.
Storage of energy
-Triglycerides can be used for long-term energy storage.

21

Compare the energy storage of carbohydrates and lipids

Lipids have more energy per unit mass than from carbohydrates.

22

Compare the solubility of carbohydrates and lipids

Lipids are insoluble, while sugars are highly soluble.

23

Compare the ease of breakdown of carbohydrates and lipids

Lipids are not easily digested, while carbohydrates are quickly hydrolysed, and thus the transferring energy is quicker.