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Flashcards in 26-50 IV homework Deck (25):
1

the internal environments resistance to change is called
A) hemostasis
B) homeostasis
C) hypertonicity
D) hypotonicity

B

2

a healthy person loses approximately ____ to ____ liters of fluid daily through urine output, through exhalation and through the skin
A) 0.5, 1
B) 1, 1.5
C) 2, 2.5
D) 3,4

C

3

which of the following statements regarding dehydration is correct?
A) it is often a chronic condition in elderly patients and may take days to manifest
B) during early dehydration, a profound loss of interstitial fluid occurers in the body.
C) in younger pt's, dehydration is typically caused by an acute loss of more than 50 mL of blood
D) during dehydration, fluid shifts from extracellular compartment to the intracellular compartment

A

4

signs and symptoms of dehydration include all of the following, EXCEPT:
A) bradypnea
B) flushed, dry skin
C) postural hypotension
D) dry mucous membranes

A

5

overhydration occurs when:
A) a patient experiences prolonged periods of severe hyperventilation
B) the left side of the heart failos and blood backs up into the systemic circulation
C) the intracellular compartment becomes engorged due to a decrease in vascular volume
D) fluid is forced from the engorged interstitial compartment into the intracellular compartment

D

6

a common cause of overhydration is
A) hypertension
B) kidney failure
C) gastrointestinal drainage.
D) prolonged hyperventilation

B

7

signs and symptoms of overhydration include:
A) edema
B) oliguria
C) weight loss
D) wheezing

A

8

IV fluids introduced into the circulatory system:
A) are only effective if the patient is experiencing renal in sufficiency
B) will always cause a shift out of intracellular compartment
C) can affect the tonicity of the extracellular fluid and can be harmful
D) usally do not cause a fluid shift into or out of the intracellular space

C

9

which of the following statements regarding isotonic solutions is correct?
A) isotonic solutions have almost the same osmolarity as body fluids
B) D5W becomes an isotonic solution once it is introduced into the body
C) normal saline is the only isotonic solution used in the prehospital setting
D) isotonic solutions expand the vascular space by shifting fluid from other compartments

A

10

a solution of water with 0.9% sodium chloride is:
A) hypotonic untill it is introduced into the body
B) capable of carrying oxygen when it is infused
C) of minimal value in expanding the vascular space
D) also called normal saline and is an isotonic solution

D

11

it is Most important to exercise caution when administrating isotonic solutions to patients with:
A) hypotension and severe hypovoloemia
B) hypertension and congestive heart failure
C) dehydration secondary to excessive diarrhea
D) a history of insulin-dependant diabetes mellitus

B

12

Lactated ringers (LR) solution should not be given to patients with liver problems because:
A) LR is a hypertonic solution and cannot be metabolized by the liver
B) the lactate contained within LR can cause necrosis of the liver tissue
C) patients with liver disease commonly experience renal insufficiency
D) the liver cannot metabolize the lactate in the solution

D

13

Lactated ringers (LR) solution may be beneficial to patients who have lost large amounts of blood because:
A) it takes less LR to effectively expand the intravascular compartment than any other isotonic solution
B) LR has the ability to carry oxygen and can maintain cellular perfusion until the patient receives definitive care
C) the lactate contained within the LR is converted to bicarbonate in the liver and can help combat intracellular acidosis
D) the likelihood of causing acute circulatory overload is minimal relative to other hypertonic solutions

C

14

once D5W is infused into the body:
A) the body metabolizes the dextrose quickly and the solution becomes hypotonic.
B) it causes fluid to shift from the intracellular space into the vascular space
C) cellular uptake of dextrose occurs and the solution quickly becomes isotonic
D) it rapidly expands the vascular space and effectively increases blood pressure

A

15

hypotonic solutions:
A) include normal saline and lactated ringer's solution
B) draw fluid from the cells and into the vascular space
C) hydrate the cells while depleting the vascular compartment
D) are the preferred solutions to use in patients with head trauma

C

16

a hypertonic solution has an osmolarity higher than that of serum, meaning that the solution:
A) may cause the cells to expand and rupture due to the increased intracellular osmotic pressure exerted by the solution
B) has more ionic concentration than serum and pulls fluid and electrolytes from the intracellular and interstitial compartments into the intravascular compartment
C) contains high concentrations of proteins and can result in fluid overloading in patients with impaired cardiac function or renal insufficiency
D) has a lower ionic concentration than serum and pulls fluid and electrolytes from the intravascular compartment into the intracellular and interstitial compartments

B

17

which of the following statements regarding isotonic crystalloid solutions is correct?
A) you should infuse 1 mL of isotonic crystalloid solution will leave the vascular space within 1 hour
B) approximately two thirds of infused isotonic crystalloid solution will leave the vascular space within 1 hour
C) isotonic crystalloids, such as normal saline, have the ability to carry and deliver oxygen to the body's cells
D) the ability of isotonic crystalloids to cross membranes and alter fluid levels makes them dangerous to use for fluid replacement

B

18

administering large amounts of an isotonic crystalloid solution to a patient with internal bleeding would MOST likely
A) expand the vascular space and improve systemic perfusion
B) cause acute hypotension as fluid is drawn from the vascular space
C) change the ratio of hemoglobin and red blood cells
D) increase the severity of internal bleeding by interfering with hemostasis

D

19

how much isotonic crystalloid solution should you administer to a pt who weighs 65 kg and who has signs and symptoms on internal bleeding?
A) boluses of up to 1625 mL each
B) 10 to 20 mL/kg every 5-10 minutes
C) an amount adequate to maintain perfusion
D) enough to increase blood pressure to a normal level

C

20

colloid solutions:
A) contain proteins that are too large to pass out of the capillary membranes, so the solutions remain in the vascular compartment
B) include solutions such as lactated ringers and normal saline and rapidly expand the intravascular compartment
C) are safe to use in the prehospital setting because they rapidly and effectively expand the intravascular compartment
D) do not contain large molecules and are therefore ineffective in expanding the intravascular compartment

A

21

all of the following are examples of colloid solutions, EXCEPT:
A) dextran
B) hetastartch
C) plasmanate
D) lactated ringer's

D

22

which of the following statements regarding synthetic blood substitues is correct?
A) type O negative blood is a synthetic blood substitute
B) they have the ability to carry oxygen to the body's cells
C) they do not possess the ability to carry and deliver oxygen
D) hespan is the most commonly used synthetic blood sustitute

B

23

the use of O negative blood in the prehospital setting is impractical because:
A) it expires in 24 hours
B) it requires refrigeration
C) not everyone can receive O negative blood
D) the blood cannot be typed and cross-matched

B

24

all of the following are peripheral veins, EXCEPT the:
A) subclavian vein
B) external jugular vein
C) veins of the hand
D) lower extremity veins

A

25

the MOST important point to remember about IV therapy is to:
A) locate the largest vein
B) wear two pairs of gloves
C) keep the IV equipment sterile
D) prepare all supplies ahead of time

C