3.1 Blood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3.1 Blood Deck (74):
1

Blood is...

A liquid connective tissue

2

4 Functions of blood

Regulation of homeostasis
Transport
Protection
Hemostasis

3

What percentage of whole blood does plasma make up?

55%

4

What is plasma made up of?

92% Water
Colloid with 7% proteins

5

What are the 4 proteins in plasma?

Liver albumin
Globulins
Fibrinogen
Regulatory

6

What is plasma

An aqueous solution with electrolytes, nutrients, gases, waste products

7

A 160 pound person would have how many quarts of plasma?

About 5

8

What percentage of whole blood do red blood cells make up?

44%

9

How are red blood cells measured

In a hematocrit analysis

10

What percentage of whole blood are white blood cells?

1 %

11

What are white blood cells also called in a hematocrit analysis?

The buffy coat

12

White blood cells most to least common

Neutrophils
Lymphocytes
Monocytes
Eosinophils
Basophils

13

Hemopoiesis
(a.k.a. hematopoiesis)

Process of blood cell production

14

Hemopoietic stem cell

-Red bone marrow
-Self renewal
-Transplantable

15

What is differentiation of cell sub-types regulated by?

-Growth factors
(e.g. erythropoietin)
-"niches"

16

Myeloid lineage

All stages of origin and development in red bone marrow

17

What cells are in the myeloid lineage?

Some leukocytes
RBCs
Megakaryocytes (platelets)

18

Lymphoid

Just origin in bone marrow

19

What cells are in the lymphoid lineage?

B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes and natural killer cells

20

Where do lymphocytes get their name?

They must migrate within lymphatic system (lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, gland, bone marrow)

21

Lymphoid leukemia

A liquid timor of cells

22

Lymphoma

Solid tumor of lymphocytes

23

Function of Red blood cells

Atmospheric gas transport

24

Oxygen in blood

99% Carried by hemoglobin in RBCs
1% Dissolved in plasma

25

CO2 in blood

7% Dissolved in plasma
23% covalently bound to hemoglobin
70% Transported by plasma as bicarbonate ions

26

How is CO2 converted to bicarbonate (HCO3-)?

Via carbonic anhydrase enzyme expressed in Red blood cells

27

Does a RBC have a nucleus?

NO

28

What does oxygen bind to in RBCs?

Iron in heme, turns it bright red

29

Is heme a protein?

No, the globin that carries heme is a protein

30

Protein organizes the ____ which organizes the ______ which binds the____

Heme
Iron
Oxygen

31

What can heme iron also bind?

Carbon monoxide which binds more tightly and prevents oxygen binding

32

Erythropoiesis

RBC birth
Sensitive to blood oxygen content and hormones

33

What is the stimulus for erythropoiesis?

Decreased blood oxygen levels

34

What detects low blood oxygen?

Kindey

35

What cells release erythropoietin (Epo) into the blood?

Kidney cells

36

What is the kidney in the RBC life cycle?

Receptor and control center

37

What does EPO do?

Stimulates red bone marrow to increase the rate of production of erythrocytes

38

What happens when increased oxygen levels are detected by the kidney?

EPO is inhibited (negative feedback)

39

How long are RBCs viable for?

~120 days

40

What happens to the globin (protein part) during death / recycling?

Degraded into AAs

41

What happens to heme during death / recycle?

Converted to bilirubin, secreted in bile from liver
------> feces

42

What is an excessive accumulation of bilirubin called?

Jaundice

43

How can blood not get rejected by all recipients?

RBCs do not have MHCs (Major histocompatibility complex)

44

Neutrophils

Phagocytize (eat) bacteria, antigen-antibody complexes and other foreign matter, in bloodstream or interstitial spaces

45

Neutrophils leave circulation (emigrate) and...

Enter tissues at infection site

46

Basophils

Leave circulation and emigrate into tissues, play a role in inflammatory responses / allergic reactions (pro-inflammatory)

47

What do basophils produce?

Histamine

48

Eosinophils leave circulation and..

Enter tissues during inflammatory response

49

Eosinophils

Destroy inflammatory chemicals like histamine ( anti-inflammatory) ((Help regulate basophils)

50

Monocytes

Leave circulation an become macrophages; phagocytic cells that reside in tissues.

51

What are monocytes associated with?

Associated with severe infections

52

Where do cells from lymphoid lineages migrate?

To lymphatic tissues where they proliferate in response to specific antigens

53

What do cells in lymphoid lineages mediate?

Acquired immunity (immune memory) specific to a particular antigen

54

B-cells (lymphocyte)

Recognize foreign protein antigens and produce antibodies which is a part of the humoral defense

55

Why do vaccines work for your entire life?

Because of B-cells!

56

T-cells and Natural killer cells

Can directly phagocytize and destroy bacteria or virally infected cells

57

What does hemostasis prevent?

Hemorrhage: loss of large volumes of blood

58

3 Steps to hemostasis

1. Vascular spasm
2. Platelet plug formation
3. Coagulation (blood clotting)

59

What is vascular spasm?

Vasoconstriction of vascular smooth muscle at the site of damage

60

What triggers vascular spasm at the site of damage?

Release of
-Thromboxanes from activated platelets
-Endothelin from damaged endothelial cells

61

What are platelets?

Anuclear pieces of megakaryocytes

62

Thrombopoiesis

-Platelet formation

63

Thrombocytopenia

Low platelets

64

Thrombocytosis

High platelets

65

Step 1 of platelet plug formation

Platelets bind exposed collagen and release thromboxane that recruits and activates other circulating platelets

66

Step 2 of platelet plug formation

Activated platelets bind soluble fibrinogen in bloodstream

67

Step 3 of platelet plug formation

Fibrinogen begins to cross-link platelets together to form a jelly-like plug

68

Coagulation cascade:
Tissue or vessel damage + platelet plug formation recruits..

Clotting factors from the plasma

69

What are clotting factors?

Enzymes and structural proteins

70

Stage 1 of the amplification cascade of coagulation

Platelets activate prothrombinase

71

Stage 2 of the amplification cascade of coagulation

Prothrombin ->thrombin

72

Stage 3 of amplification cascade of coagulation

Fibrinogen -> Fibrin

73

Result of amplification cascade

Fibrin matrix + platelets = strong clots

74

What does heparin do?

Anticoagulant, inhibits thrombin via enzymes