4.4_1 Renal I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4.4_1 Renal I Deck (45):
1

Regulation of ion concentrations in body fluids

Maintains blood osmolarity by retaining water (ADH)

2

Regulation of volume of body fluids and thus blood pressure

Managed by retention of essential ions (Na+, Cl-, K+, ca2+)
RAAS

3

Regulation of blood pH (Assisting the lungs)

Kidney cells express carbonic anhydrase [H+] via CO2 and HCO3-

4

Elimination of waste products

Metabolic waste: mainly urea
Xenobiotic waste: a foreign molecule

5

Renal artery directs ____% of CO to the kidneys

22

6

How many times a day is your 5L of blood filtered?

About 36

7

Two layers to the kidney

Renal cortex
Renal medulla

8

Renal cortex (relation to blood)

Isotonic to blood

9

Renal medulla (relation to blood)

Very salty, hypertonic to blood

10

All nephrons begin in the...

Cortex

11

Two types of nephrons in the kidney

Cortical
Juxtamedullary

12

Cortical nephrons

85%
Have very short loops of Henle, do not leave cortex

13

Juxtamedullary nephrons

Start in the cortex, have long loops of Henle that penetrate deep into the medulla

14

From the _____ to the _______, the kidneys are trying to capture something back from the tubular fluid

Proximal convoluted tubule
Collecting duct

15

Fluid is called filtrate in the..

Capsular space

16

Fluid is called tubular fluid in the..

PCT-Collecting duct

17

Fluid is called urine in the..

Papillary duct-urethra

18

3 Processes resulting in urine formation

1) Glomerular Ultrafiltration
2) Tubular Reabsorption
3) Tubular Secretion

19

Glomerular ultrafiltration

Blood plasma enters tubules as filtrate

20

Tubular reabsorption

Filtrate moved back into blood in tubules

21

Tubular secretion

Substances transported from blood to tubules

22

Fenestrated Capillaries

Leaky endothelial cells (have holes)

23

Glomerular Podocytes

Provide a selective barrier for ultrafiltration

24

Juxtaglomerular Apparatus

Monitors and regulates whole blood volume and blood pressure throughout the entire body

25

Renal corpuscle

Filtration membrane comprised of fenestrated capillaries and glomerular podocytes

26

Filtration slits

In glomerular podocyte cells --> enable ultrafiltration

27

Why do diabetic's kidneys start to fail?

Because it makes the muscles more rigid, which leads to higher BP and kidneys are very sensitive to chronic high BP

28

What does the filtrate include?

Water, glucose, amino acids, ions, urea, many hormones, vitamins B and C, ketones and very small amounts of protein

29

What is the main force drives ultrafiltration in glomerulus?

Hydrostatic pressure

30

What does the endothelium in the glomerulus block?

Formed elements

31

What does the basement membrane in the glomerulus block?

Large proteins

32

What do the filtration slits of the visceral layer in the glomerulus block?

Small proteins

33

What is not filterable by the glomerulus?

Proteins in plasma
Blood cells
Any large, bulky molecule

34

How do you calculate renal blood flow?

20 % of cardiac output

35

What flow really mattes when calculating glomerular filtration rate?

Only plasma flow
55% plasma

36

GFR

Volume of plasma filtrate that enters the capsular space per minute

37

What percentage of plasma gets forced out of blood?

19%

38

What percentage of what gets filtered is reabsorbed?

99%

39

Vasa recta

Blood vessels around loop of Henle

40

Peritubular capillaries

Blood vessels associated with peritubular capillaries

41

Afferent arteriole

Incoming, larger diameter

42

Efferent arteriole

Outflow from corpuscle, smaller diameter

43

Increased vascular resistance creates...

1) High hydrostatic pressure upstream in fenestrated glomerular capillaries
2) Low hydrostatic pressure downstream in peritubular and vasa recta capillaries

44

_______ have lowest hydrostatic pressure in entire body

Peritubular capillaries

45

Net filtration pressure favors....

Filtrate entry into tubules (some things go in and some go out)