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Flashcards in 4.2 Energy Metabolism Deck (41):
1

Where does the energy to make ATP come from?

Chemical bonds in food molecules

2

In cells, energy can be extracted from food molecules where...

Electrons are shared equally by covalent bonds

3

Examples of food molecules that can be used for energy

Carbon-carcon bonds and
Carbon-Hydrogen bonds
Found in lipids, carbs, AAs and nucleotides

4

Oxygen is the ______, once O is in a covalent bond with carbon or hydrogen, energy _______ be extracted

Ground state
CAN NOT

5

More carbons and more bonds =

More available energy (E)

6

More atoms and electrons bonding =

More energy

7

How do cells extract energy from foods?

Oxidation-reduction chemical reactions

8

Are redox reactions always 100% efficient?

No, some energy is ALWAYS lost as heat

9

Reduction is...

A molecule gaining energy

10

Oxidation is...

When a molecule loses energy

11

Are redox reactions always paired?

Yes, if a molecule gets oxidized, something simultaneously gets reduced

12

NAD+ + Energy -->

NADH
(reduction)

13

NADH oxidation

NAD+ + Energy

14

OIL RIG

Oxidation is loss (of e-)
Reduction is gain
(of e-)

15

What is NADH doing?

Storing energy

16

All 6 C's in glucose are..

Oxidized to CO2

17

When glucose is oxidized to CO2..

Energy is released
ADP-->ATP
Oxygen reduced to H2O

18

What percentage of energy is captured to make ATP?

30-40%

19

When does aerobic cellular respiration occur?

When there is adequate oxygen supply (lungs, CV system, and RBCs can keep up with demand)

20

Products of Aerobic cellular respiration

CO2 + H2O
36 ATP / glucose

21

Anaerobic cellular respiration occurs when there is..

Inadequate oxygen

22

Products of anaerobic cellular respiration

Lactic acid
2 ATP / glucose

23

4 Stages of aerobic cellular respiration

1. Glycolysis
2. Acetyl-CoA formation
3. Kreb's Cycle
4.Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation

24

Start and end of glycolysis

6C Glucose
3C Pyruvate (x2)

25

Energy captured by reduction in glycolysis

2 ATP
2 NADH

26

What happens if regeneration of NAD+ stops?

Glycolysis stops

27

During pyruvate oxidation, what is pyruvate oxidized to?

Acetyl CoA (Produces 2)

28

Per 1 glucose in pyruvate oxidation.....

-2 CO2 released by oxidation
-2 NADH produced by reduction

29

After pyruvate oxidation, there is a...

Decision point!

30

If cell needs ATP after pyruvate oxidation

Acetyl CoA proceeds to step 3: Kreb's Cycle

31

If there is plenty of ATP after Kreb's cycle...

Acetyl CoA goes into long term energy storage (adipose tissue, triglycerides)

32

If you burn fat for energy, you release..

Acetyl CoA

33

Overall effect of Kreb's Cycle

Oxidation of remaining acetyl-coA to CO2
Reduction of NAD+ to NADH

34

After the Kreb's Cycle, what has the cell made

6 CO2
4 ATP
10 NADH
2 FADH2

35

During ETC and OP, high energy electrons from _____ are used to fuel _______ ion pumps

NADH
H+

36

H+ ion pumps create H+ ion ________, flow of ions used to make ____

Gradient
ATP

37

Oxygen is the ground state in the ETC and OP, meaning that..

Electrons flow down towards it

38

Issue with glycolysis and anaerobic cellular respiration

Regenerating NAD+ from NADH to keep glycolysis running smoothly

39

Without NAD+, glycolysis...

Stops cold (but is usually not a problem since oxygen is around)

40

Solution to NAD+ problem in anaerobic cellular respiration

NADH electrons dropped onto Pyruvate (reduces it), frees up NAD+ to go back and keep glycolysis running

41

Result of reducing pyruvate...

Creates lactate or lactic acid (in animals)
Or yeast / ethanol in plants