Flashcards in ✅18.104.22.168 - The concept of Hazard in Geographical Context Deck (29)
What is hazard risk?
The probability or chance that a natural hazard may take place
What are geophysical hazards?
A potentially damaging natural event or natural hazard
What is an atmospheric hazard?
Include things such as oxygen deficiencies, dusts, chemical vapors, welding fumes, fogs, and mists that can interfere with the bodies ability to transport and utilize oxygen, or that have negative toxicological effects on the human body.
What are hydrological hazards?
Extreme events associated with water occurrence, movement, and distribution.
What are the cultural factors affecting hazard perception?
If people have lived in a dangerous place for generations, they have more knowledge and a very different perception of risk
How do economic factors affect hazard perception?
In more developed parts of the world, people can be constantly educated in the risks of hazards, which can lead them to believe they’re worse than they really are.
In poorer parts of the world, people have very little to loose so are more relaxed
What is an earthquake?
The shaking and vibration of the Earth’s crust due to movement of the tectonic plates
What is a volcano?
An opening in the Earth’s crust which allows molten rock from beneath the crust to reach the surface
What is hazard perception?
The way an individual understands and reacts to a hazard
What is frequency?
How often a certain event occurs
What is Magnitude?
The size/scale/weighting an event has
What is Fatalism?
Russian roulette/optimistic approach. Hazards are ‘God’s will’ and losses are accepted. Lack of alternatives due to economic reasons. Events seem normal, people lived through them many times
What is adaption/adjustment?
When a town or city starts to change their way of living p to fit natural disasters into their everyday lives. Buildings are changed, such as in Christchurch
What is Prediction?
Knowing when a hazard will occur and can reduce death toll. Included seismic monitoring of volcanoes, measuring gas emissions, observing weather systems etc...
What is Mitigation?
Any action taken to reduce or eliminate the threat to property or human life as a result of a natural hazard. Includes the ideas of adaptions and preparation, but also anything done on an individual level.
What is risk sharing?
Spreading the risk reduces one individual/groups damage making it more acceptable. May also involve sharing financial burden and possible management strategies.
What is management?
Little can be done, but often depends on wealth. Japan spends billions on its tsunami warning system while the Philippines relies on weather reports and wrapping belongings in cling film when typhoons hit
What does the Park Model of hazard response do?
Considers how the standard of living and economic status of an affected area changes following an event
What is social stability?
When a place is not affected by things such as civil war, corrupt governments, hazards etc.
What is resilience?
How able a community is to adapt and recover
What is emergency?
The state in which normal procedures are suspended and measures are taken
What are the 4 stages on the Park Model?
What are the 5 stages in the hazard response cycle?
Hazard Event —> Response —> Recovery —> Prevention/Mitigation —> Preparation —> Hazard...
What does relief comprise of in the Park model?
The immediate local and possibly global response in the form of aid, expertise and search and rescue.
What does rehabilitation comprise of in the Park Model?
A longer phase lasting weeks or oaths, where infrastructure and services are restored, albeit possibly temporarily, to allow the reconstruction phase to begin as soon as possible.
What does the reconstruction phase comprise of the in Park model?
Restoring the same or better quality o life as before the event took place, likely including mitigation’s against a similar level of disruption if the event occurs again.
What does Preparedness comprise of in the hazard response cycle?
Education and public awareness to reduce human causes, adjusting behaviour to minimise the likely impact of the hazard. Knowing what to do in the immediate aftermath.
What does response comprise of the in Hazard response cycle?
Dependent not he effectiveness of the emergency plan in place. Immediate response focuses on saving lives and coordinating medical assistance.