Flashcards in ✅220.127.116.11 - The Carbon Cycle Deck (62)
What is a Carbon store?
The lithosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, atmosphere etc
What is a carbon sink?
A store that takes in more carbon than it releases
What is a carbon source?
A store that releases more carbon than it takes in
What is a carbon transfer?
Processes that transfer carbon between stores
What is a GtC?
A gigatonne of Carbon, 1 gigatonne = 1 billion tonnes
What is anthropogenic CO2?
Carbon Dioxide generated by human activity
What is a greenhouse gas?
Any gaseous compound in the atmosphere that is capable of absorbing infrared radiation, therefore trapping and holding heat in the atmosphere
What is the lithosphere?
The crust and uppermost mantle, the hard rigid outer layer of the earth
What is weathering?
The breakdown of rocks in situ by weather, plants and animals
What is the biosphere?
The total sum of all living matter
What is Carbon Sequestration?
The capture of CO2 from the atmosphere, or capturing anthropogenic CO2 from large scale stationary sources such as power stations - put into long term storage
Why is recycling carbon essential for life?
It enables food to be provided for plants and animals and creation of energy sources
What can carbon form?
Biological molecules, Gases (eg CO2, CH4), Hydrocarbons
What is the primary source of Carbon?
The Earth's interior
What are some of the stores in the carbon cycle?
Sedimentary rock, coal, oil, gas, plants, atmosphere, phytoplankton etc
What are some of the transfers in the carbon cycle?
Weathering and erosion, rock cycle, photosynthesis, respiration, burning, decomposition, diffusion
What is the largest store of carbon?
Marine sediments and sedimentary rock
How is the ocean a store of carbon?
CO2 is absorbed directly from the air and river water discharges carbon in solutions
How is soil organic matter a store of carbon?
They contain rotting organic matter and are important carbon stores. Carbon can remain in the soils for hundreds of years
What are inorganic sources of carbon in the lithosphere?
Fossil fuels, eg coal, oil, natural gas and carbonate-based sedimentary deposits
What are organic sources of carbon within the lithosphere?
Litter, organic matter and humic substances in soils
What are the three stores of carbon in the lithosphere?
Marine sediments & sedimentary rocks
Soil organic matter
Fossil fuel deposits
How is carbon in the biosphere divided up?
Into terrestrial and oceanic
What are the main sources of carbon in the biosphere?
Where is most of the carbon in the cryosphere?
In the soil areas of permafrost where decomposing plants and animals have frozen into the ground
What are methyl clathrates?
Molecules of methane frozen into ice crystals
What does most frozen organic matter in permafrost consist of?
Partially decayed roots, whole roots and other plant material
When is cryospheric carbon released into the atmosphere?
When the permafrost melts
What are oceanic carbon stores divided into?
Surface later (euphotic zone)
Intermediate and deep layer
Living organic matter