✅3.1.3.2 - Systems and Processes Flashcards Preview

AQA A Level Geography - PHYSICAL > ✅3.1.3.2 - Systems and Processes > Flashcards

Flashcards in ✅3.1.3.2 - Systems and Processes Deck (63)
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1

What are some of the sources of energy in the coastal system?

Wind
Waves
Currents
Tides

2

How does the wind provide energy?

Strong winds move the water surface and create waves
Winds with large fetches can transfer more energy

3

How do waves provide energy?

Waves have powerful errosive energy, can destroy features
Moves sediment around, creates as well as destroys

4

How do currents provide energy?

Can move sediment on the sea floor
More material on and off coastline regularly, great force

5

How do tides provide energy?

Moves sediment up the beach and down again, carries material
Dictates where waves can get to, location of the energy

6

How does the sun provide energy?

It causes differences in air pressure due to different rates of heating, when then creates wind

7

How is wind energy formed?

By air moving between areas of different pressure

8

How are powerful winds created?

The greater the difference in air pressure gradient, the faster the wind speed and the more powerful

9

What are the factors impacting the size of waves?

Strength of the wind
The fetch
Duration of the wind

10

How does wind strength impact waves?

The stronger the wind, the more power and energy the waves have and so the more powerful and potentially destructive they are.

11

What are some terrestrial features affecting the coastal system?

Tectonics
Sediment supply
Sub aerial processes
Fluvial processes

12

What are some marine features affecting the coastal system?

Wave shape/size
Fetch
Wave direction
Tides
Sea level change

13

What are some human features affecting the coastal system?

Development
Sea defences
Tourism and recreation
Pollution
Global Warming
Conservation

14

What are some atmospheric features affecting the coastal system?

Winds
Temperature
Precipitation
Solar energy
Glaciation

15

How are waves formed?

By energy passing through the water, causing it to move in a circular motion

16

What do waves transmit?

Energy, not water

17

What are wind driven waves caused by?

Frictional drag between the wind and the surface water

18

How do waves change as they approach the shore?

Disturbance to the circular motion beneath the surface leads to a more horizontal movement and the wave breaks

19

What are the features of constructive waves?

Add material to coastline
Low wave with long wavelength
Strong swash

20

What are the features of destructive waves?

Tall in relation to length
Remove material from coastline
Common in winter
Strong backwash
Never reach the backshore
Causes cliff face erosion

21

What are orthogonals?

Lines of wave energy

22

What are high energy coastlines like?

Rocky, ocean facing coasts where waves are powerful

23

What types of landforms tend to be on high energy coasts?

Wave cut platforms and headlands

24

What are low energy coastlines like?

Sandy, estuarine and where waves are less powerful as the coast is sheltered

25

How do rates of deposition and erosion compare at high energy stretches of coast?

Rate of erosion exceeds rate of deposition

26

How do rates of deposition and erosion compare at low energy stretches of coast?

Rate of deposition exceeds rate of erosion

27

What types of landforms tend to be on low energy coasts?

Beaches, spits and coastal plains

28

What is a sediment cell?

A stretch of coastline within which sediment movement is more or less contained

29

What are sediment cells usually bordered by?

2 large headlands

30

What can sediment cells be further subdivided into?

Sediment subcells