✅3.1.5.6 - Fires in Nature Flashcards Preview

AQA A Level Geography - PHYSICAL > ✅3.1.5.6 - Fires in Nature > Flashcards

Flashcards in ✅3.1.5.6 - Fires in Nature Deck (20)
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1

What is a wildfire?

A bushfire or rural fire which is uncontrollable and spreading

2

What are the tree things needed for fires to burn?

Heat, Fuel and Oxygen

3

What can sources of fuel include?

Trees
Logs
Dry Grass
Petrol
Aerosols
Leaves

4

What can sources of heat include?

Cigarette ends
Matches
Barbecues
The sun
Electrical storms
Broken glass
Arson

5

How can the seasons affect the likelihood of wildfires?

The drier and windier the season, the more likely the wildfire

6

What is the most common cause of wildfire?

Arson

7

Which factors can worsen wildfires?

Dry vegetation
Ladder fuels
Hilly areas
Homes with wooden/timber cladding
Flammable fertilisers

8

How can wildfires be prevented?

Remove ladder fuels
Control of vegetation
Natural 'breaks' or borders
Removal of fuel sources
Burn off crops after harvest

9

What phenomenon can make conditions warmer and drier?

El Nino and the Indian Ocean Dipole

10

What is El Nino?

A climate cycle in the Pacific Ocean with a global impact on weather

11

How does vegetation type affect wildfires?

Water stroing plants eg Cacti are much harder to burn while Eucalyptus use the nutrients released from ash and the additional light from surrounding vegetation being burned, so promote wildfire

12

How can wildfires be mitigated against?

In countries such as Australia and the US, which are prone to fires, organisations produce advice for residents and some states such as Colorado provide residents with a set of guidelines

13

What are some of the guidelines set in Colorado?

Reduce fuels around the home
Mow grasses and weeds often, to shorter than 6 inches
Use fire resistant materials in the house
Dispose of any excess accumulation of logs

14

What is the most popular wildfire education campaign in the US?

Smokey Bear

15

What are the five rules in the Smokey Bear song?

Only you can prevent wildfires
Always be careful with fire
Never play with matches or lighters
Always watch your campfire
Make sure your campfire is out before leaving it

16

How effective has Smokey Bear been?

It was launched in 1944 and has since been popular with children and adults, teaching the effect of wildfire on the environment. The success has largely been down to the character.

17

What do NEPA do in the US?

The National Fire Protection Agency runs fire community preparedness days annually to help reduce fuels and educate communities

18

How can wildfires be detected?

Using traditional manned lookout towers, which can be unreliable and require 24 hour surveillance, or more recently, computer based video analysis which can automatically produce an alert

19

What does the law state in California?

The residents must clear out all flammable materials such as bush or vegetation around 100ft of the property to create defensible space

20

What does the law state in Scotland?

The any open fires must be kept under control and must not be lit in prolonged dry periods in areas such as grasslands or forests