What are the three components of connective tissue?
Cells, protein fibers, and ground substance.
What do fibroblasts do?
Are the ones that lay down the extracellular matrix fibers, they tend to be elongate in appearance.
Give examples of cells in connective tissues?
Macrophages, mast cells, osteocytes, chondrocytes, adipocytes, blood cells, reticulocytes
Where are chondrocytes located?
only found in cartilage
Found only in reticular connective tissue.
What are the three types of fibers in connective tissues?
1) Reticular fibers: Thin bundles of collagen 2) Elastic fibers 3) Collagen Fibers
What are the molecules found in ground substance?
Water, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins.
Location/Function of dense regular connective tissue?
Attaches bone to bone (ligament) and muscle to bone (tendon), releases stress in one direction.
General characteristics of dense regular connective tissue?
More collagen fibers, less ground substance, fewer cells.
Location of dense irregular connective tissue?
Most of dermis of skin; periosterum covering bone, perichondrium covering cartilage, some organ capsules.
General characteristics of dense irregular connective tissue?
More fibers (collagen), less ground substance, fewer cells
Elastic connective tissue location?
Walls of elastic arteries (such as the aorta), trachea, vocal cords and suspensory ligament of the penis.
Function of elastic connective tissue?
Allows for stretching and recoil
General characteristics of Elastic connective tissue
More fibers (elastic), less ground substance, fewer cells
What are the three types of loose connective tissue?
1) Areolar 2) Adipose 3) Reticular
Define Areolar loose connective tissue
-Papillary layer of the dermis (skin), subcutaneous layer (deep to skin, surrounds organs nerves and blood vessels. - Abundant viscous ground substance, fewer cells, fewer fibers.
Define adipose loose connective tissue
-Subcutaneous layer, surrounds, and covers some organs. -All adipocytes making up the subcutaneous layer and covering and surrounding some organs.
Define reticular loose connective tissue
Spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, and bone marrow
What are the main types of cartilage?
1) Hyaline 2) Elastic 3) Fibrocartilage
Define Hyaline cartilage
Make up the majority of the body's cartilage. It line the bones in joints, helping them to articulate smoothy. Hyaline cartilage contains mostly type II collagen fibers.
Define Articular cartilage?
Is nearly hyaline cartilage that covers the articular surfaces of bones. No perichondrium is present presumably since it would provide a fibrous articulating layer rather than a smooth surface with necessary resilience (ability to resist deformation)
Where is hyaline cartilage found?
Costal cartilages, articular cartilages, epiphyseal plates and majority of fetal skeleton that is later replaced by bone.
-Strongest most rigid type of cartilage. -Has more collagen than hyaline -Makes up interverebral disc, connects tendon and ligaments to bones and damaged hyaline cartilage is replaced with fibrocartilage when damaged.
Which of the following is NOT primarily composed of connective tissue? a. Blood b. Bone c. Tendon d. Intervertebral disc e. Myometrium
e. Myometrium -Of the four basic tissue types (epithelium, connective tissue, muscle and nervous tissue), connective tissue is the most diverse. Blood, bone, tendon, and intervertebral discs are all composed of connective tissue. The myometrium is the muscular layer of the uterus. Thus, the myometrium is composed of muscle tissue.
Which of the following is NOT a fiber found in connective tissue? a. Collagen fiber b. Elastic fiber c. Reticular fiber d. Purkinje fiber e. All of the above are fibers found in connective tissue
Answer: d There are three types of fibers found in connective tissue: collagen fibers, elastic fibers, and reticular fibers. Collagen fibers are the most abundant fiber type in connective tissue. Purkinje fibers are seen in the heart. Purkinje fibers are specialized muscle fibers.
Which cell is a connective tissue macrophage? a. Kupffer cells b. Histiocyte c. Dust cell d. Langerhans cell e. Microglia
Answer: b Macrophages are mononuclear phagocytes. Many tissues have resident (fixed) macrophages. Fixed macrophages are given a unique name, depending on the tissue that they are located in. Kupffer cells are the hepatic macrophages. Histiocytes are macrophages seen in connective tissue. Dust cells are alveolar macrophage found in the respiratory tract. Langerhans cells are macrophages seen in the skin. Microglia are the central nervous system macrophages.
Which of the following can be classified as "specialized connective tissue"? a. Mesenchyme b. Mucous connective tissue c. Dense connective tissue d. Blood e. Loose connective tissue
Answer: d Connective tissue can be sub-classified into connective tissue proper, specialized connective tissue and embryonic connective tissue. Connective tissue proper consists of loose irregular connective tissue and dense connective tissue (regular and irregular). Specialized connective tissue includes cartilage, bone, adipose tissue, blood and hemopoietic tissue, and lymphatic tissue. Embryonic connective tissue includes mesenchyme and mucous connective tissue.
Which of the following can be classified as "embryonic connective tissue"? a. Cartilage b. Mucous connective tissue d. Adipose tissue d. Bone e. Blood
Answer: b Connective tissue can be sub-classified into connective tissue proper, specialized connective tissue and embryonic connective tissue. Connective tissue proper consists of loose irregular connective tissue and dense connective tissue (regular and irregular). Specialized connective tissue includes cartilage, bone, adipose tissue, blood and hemopoietic tissue, and lymphatic tissue. Embryonic connective tissue includes mesenchyme and mucous connective tissue.
What type of tissue makes up the dermis of the skin? a. Mucous connective tissue b. Mesenchyme c. Loose irregular connective tissue d. Dense irregular connective tissue e. Dense regular connective tissue
Answer: d Mesenchyme is embryonic connective tissue. It is an undifferentiated tissue found in the embryo. Mucous connective tissue is a type of embryonic connective tissue; it is a subset of mesenchyme. Wharton's jelly is mucous connective tissue. Loose irregular connective tissue is areolar tissue. Dense irregular connective tissue is seen in the dermis. Dense regular connective tissue comprises tendons and ligaments.
Define Elastic Cartilage
-Contains elastic fibers in the matrix -The fibers are oriented in all directions. -Matrix stains dark blue/purple while the lacunae are faintly stained or unstained. -More flexible then others.
Where is Fibrocartilage found?
TMJ, Intervertebral disc, and symphysis pubis
Where is elastic cartilage found?
Found in the outer ear, the larynx, and the eustachian tubes.
Define Marfan's syndrome
-is one one of the most common diseases of the connective tissues -that effects the heart, blood vessels, lungs, eyes, bones, and ligaments. - Affects Fibrillin 1, affecting growth and development.
What is the most serious effect of Marfan syndrome?
Weakness of the aorta, causing enlarged aortic vessels or thoracic aortic aneurysms.
What does TGF beta do?
-TGF-beta is transforming growth factor beta -Has a deleterious effect on vascular smooth muscle development and the integrity of the extracellular matrix. -It is autosomal dominant
Which TGF-beta is mutated in Marfan's syndrome?
TGFBR2, causes replacement of arginine with cysteine or histidine.
What does fibrillin do?
Is a glycoprotein which forms the microfibrils that make up the connective tissue.
Which cell does not arise from the myeloid cell but does from the hemopoetic stem cell?
a group of disorders in which the cartilage is ossified, or transformed into bone.
the degradation of cartilage in the joints, leading to limited movement and pain.
Acartilage disorder resulting in dwarfism.
Benign tumors that arise in the cartilage.
Where does the osteon sit?
In the haversion canal
What connects osteons?
What are the types of connective tissue?
-Connective tissue proper: binds structures together
-Supportivie connective tissue
- Fluid connective tissue