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Flashcards in MEOW Deck (11):

The cell cycle has two major “check points” that must be passed through to start and complete mitosis. Which is the checkpoint that is considered the start point when a cell decides to divide?

A. Entering G1 from M
B. Entering G2 from S
C. Entering M from G2
D. Entering S from G1

D. Entering S from G1


Which of the following types of genes that cause cancer have to be mutated in both copies to become problematic?

A. DNA binding protein genes
B. Oncogenes
C. Proto-oncognes
D. Structural protein genes
E. Tumor suppressor genes

E. Tumor suppressor genes*


A 27-year-old female presents with a spinal cord injury suffered in an automobile collision. She can feel pain, light touch and proprioception in her right arm. She can move her right leg but she cannot feel pain in her right leg. The most likely spinal lesion is the

A. left half of C3.
B. left half of T5.
C. left half of L3.
D. right half of T5.
E. right half of S3.

B. left half of T5.

Explanation: 1. The ability to feel pain, light touch and proprioception in the right arm suggests cord above the cervical enlargement is intact on both sides. 2. The ability to move her right leg indicates the right side of the cord above the lumbar enlargement is intact. 3. The inability to feel pain in the right leg indicates that the cord on the left side above the lumbar enlargement is damaged. With these considerations, the damage is most likely on the left half of the cord, above the lumbar enlargement and below the cervical enlargement. The best answer would be: left half of T5.


A 20-year-old female presents to the clinic with diffuse neck pain for 2 days. She also complains of headache and difficulty focusing. On physical exam, her vital signs are temperature 100.9°F, BP 110/68, HR 102, RR 18. She appears to be in some distress, is sitting stiffly, and has difficulty answering all your questions. Oropharynx is clear. Heart is tachycardic with regular rhythm. Lungs are clear. There is decreased active range of motion of her neck. While evaluating the passive range of motion, you observe that there is flexion of her knees when the cervical spine is flexed. What is the most likely cause of her neck pain?
A. Discitis
B. Fasciitis
C. Meningitis
D. Osteomyelitis
E. Tonsillitis



Which of the following would be a red flag in the medical history suggesting a problem of infectious origin, when a patient presents with pain in the cervical spine region?

A. Elderly
B. History of cancer
C. Intra-venous drug user
D. Major trauma
E. Pain lasting more than 6 weeks

C. Intra-venous drug user


The best clinical management of a patient with chronic and unrelenting pain involves
A. alternative approaches to care.
B. medication, meditation and a referral to a counselor for family interventions.
C. patient and family education in addition to regularly scheduled clinic visits.
D. releasing the patient with 3 referrals to pain management clinics to follow-up their care.
E. treating the patient carefully so they do not become addicted to the pain medication.

C. patient and family education in addition to regularly scheduled clinic visits. ***


A 43-year-old female presents to your office complaining of a bloody-nipple discharge. You are concerned about breast cancer; however, the physical examination is unrevealing for any lumps or masses of the breast tissue. You should now

A. Consider conservative treatment; return in 2 months for repeat examination
B. Excise the nipple
C. Perform a series of random breast biopsies
D. Request genetic testing for the “breast-cancer” gene
E. Request imaging of the breast

E. Request imaging of the breast


Which of the statement best describes the pathology of Gout?
A. Begins as a synovitis with hyperplasia.
B. Bone Fibrillation
C. Involves granulation tissue that covers the articular surfaces
D. Podagra
E. Subcutaneous Nodules

D. Podagra *


The two conditions that are most favor the development of gout include _______ purine biosynthesis and __________ purine degradation?
A. deficient deficient
B. deficient excessive
C. excessive deficient
D. excessive excessive

D. excessive excessive


A 45-year-old female is evaluated for painful hands and wrists. They have been getting increasingly painful and swollen over the past year. Her social history is significant for two packs per day cigarette smoking for the past 25 years, and her mother had an unknown arthritis. Her physical exam is significant for bilateral proximal interphalangeal joints and metacarpophalangeal joint swelling and tenderness.
Which one of the following is most consistent with her arthritis?
A. Asymmetric joint involvement
B. Elevated serological markers of inflammation
C. Equally affects men and women
D. Morning stiffness for less than 30 minutes
E. Most commonly affects weight-bearing joints

B. Elevated serological markers of inflammation*


The sensation of nociceptive pain starts with ______ of the membrane potential of the _____.

A. depolarization ; free nerve ending
B. depolarization ; relay neuron in the dorsal horn
C. depolarization ; neuron in the cerebral cortex
D. hyperpolarization ; free nerve ending
E. hyperpolarization ; relay neuron in the dorsal horn
F. hyperpolarization ; neuron in the cerebral cortex

A. depolarization ; free nerve ending