3.2 Weathering and rocks Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3.2 Weathering and rocks Deck (24)
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1

Biological weathering

Form of weathering caused by activities of living organisms. (Chemical and physical)

2

Carboniferous limestone (karst)

Formed of remains of organic matter, mostly plants and shells.

3

Why is limestone scenery unique?

It is hard but permeable.
It dissolves very slowly in acid water.

4

Freeze-thaw

Form of physical weathering, common in mountains and glacial environments.

5

Granite

Coarse-grained, intrusive, igneous rock, typically consisting of the mineral quartz, feldspar and mica.

6

Joint

Vertical crack in a rock formed by compression. Weathering of joints in granite and limestone is responsible for the formation of swallow holes.

7

Karst

Characteristic scenery of a carboniferous limestone region with underground streams.

8

Mechanical (physical weathering)

Includes process like freeze-thaw and exfoliation or onion-skin.

9

Scree

Angular sediment that collects at the foot of a mountain range or a cliff.

10

Solution

Occurs on rocks like chalk and limestone that contain calcium carbonate. When dissolved in rain CO2 forms weak carbonic acid.

11

Tor

Isolated mass of rock, often granite, left upstanding on a hilltop after the surrounding rock has been broken down and removed.

12

Weathering

Process by which exposed rocks are broken down on the spot by the action of rain, frost, wind and other elements of weather.

13

Salt crystallization

Causes decomposition of rocks by solution of salt.

14

Exfoliation

When rocks heat up and cool down (contract) at nightime, stresses occur in outer layers casting the rock to peel.

15

Aggresivity

Ability of water to de solve calcium carbonate

16

Dolines

Large depressions formed by solution of limestone

17

Uvaalas

Large depressions (30 m in diameter)

18

Swallow holes (sinks)

Smaller depressions in the landscape

19

Stalactites

Develop from the top of caves

20

Stalagmites

Formed on the base of the cave

21

Speleothems

Cave deposits formed by precipitation of calcium carbonate

22

Granite

Igneous, crystalline rock.

23

Watershed

Drainage basin divide

24

Disintegration

Found in hot desert areas where there is a large diurnal temperature range