Flashcards in 3.6 Staging of cancer Deck (25):
Why do we stage cancer?
Accurate communication between physicians
Assessment of treatment
Create a flowchart of management and treatment
When should staging be applied?
At the time of diagnosis
What is not part of staging?
What is the T stage
Tx = not accessible
T0 = no evidence of primary
Tis = Carcinoma in situ (no invasion and not malignan)
T1-4 = increasing size or local extent
What is teh N stage?
Nx = not accessible
N0 = no regional lymph node mets
N1-3 = increasing involvement
What is the M stage
M0 = no mets
M1 = mets
What is pT?
Pathologic tumour (stage has been determined after resection)
What is ypN
Pathologic stage of nodes post chemotherapy
What is R staging?
Residual tumour post resection
R0 = no residual tumour
R1 = microscopic residual tumour
R2 = macroscopic
What is sn staging?
Sentinel node involvement
What does ypN1(sn) mean?
after chemotherapy a sentinel node was positive
What is the T stage in breast cancer?
Tx = Primary cannot be assessed
Tis = in situ disease only
T0 = no primary
T1 = 2 5cm
T4 = tumour involving chest wall or skin
What is the N stage in breast cancer?
N0 = none
N1 = 1-3 axillary nodes
N2 = >3 axillary or apparent internal mammary
N3= > = 10
What TNM is stage 1 breast cancer?
T1, N0, M0
What TNM is stage 2 breast ?
as soon as there is nodal involvement (only up to N1)
T0, T1 and T2 with N1 M0
T3 N0 M0
What TNM is stage 3a breast ?
T0-2 with N2 M0
T3 with N1 or N2 M0
What TNM is stage 3b breast?
T4, N0-2, M0
What TNM is stage 3c breast?
any T, N3, M0
What TNM is stage 4 breast?
Ant T, N, M1
What is the T stage in colorectal cancer?
Tis = just in muscularis mucosa
T1 = extends into submucosa
T2 = extends into muscularis propria
T3 = Grown through the muscularis propria to outer layers but not through them
T4 = Through the serosa to adjacent organs
What is the N stage of colorectal cancer?
N1 = 1-3 mesenteric nodes
N2 = >=4 mesenteric nodes
What TNM is stage 1 colon cancer?
T1 or T2, N0 M0
What TNM is stage 2 colon cancer?
T3 or T4 N0 M0
What TNM is stage 3 colon cancer?
Any T, N1 or 2, M0