3.6 Staging of cancer Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3.6 Staging of cancer Deck (25):
1

Why do we stage cancer?

Planning treatment
Accurate communication between physicians
Assessment of treatment
Create a flowchart of management and treatment

2

When should staging be applied?

At the time of diagnosis

3

What is not part of staging?

Tumour grade
Histological subtype
Microscopic features
Patient symptoms

4

What is the T stage

Tumour
Tx = not accessible
T0 = no evidence of primary
Tis = Carcinoma in situ (no invasion and not malignan)
T1-4 = increasing size or local extent

5

What is teh N stage?

Node
Nx = not accessible
N0 = no regional lymph node mets
N1-3 = increasing involvement

6

What is the M stage

Metastases
M0 = no mets
M1 = mets

7

What is pT?

Pathologic tumour (stage has been determined after resection)

8

What is ypN

Pathologic stage of nodes post chemotherapy

9

What is R staging?

Residual tumour post resection
R0 = no residual tumour
R1 = microscopic residual tumour
R2 = macroscopic

10

What is sn staging?

Sentinel node involvement

11

What does ypN1(sn) mean?

after chemotherapy a sentinel node was positive

12

What is the T stage in breast cancer?

Tx = Primary cannot be assessed
Tis = in situ disease only
T0 = no primary
T1 = 2 5cm
T4 = tumour involving chest wall or skin

13

What is the N stage in breast cancer?

N0 = none
N1 = 1-3 axillary nodes
N2 = >3 axillary or apparent internal mammary
N3= > = 10

14

What TNM is stage 1 breast cancer?

T1, N0, M0

15

What TNM is stage 2 breast ?

as soon as there is nodal involvement (only up to N1)
T0, T1 and T2 with N1 M0
OR
T3 N0 M0

16

What TNM is stage 3a breast ?

T0-2 with N2 M0
T3 with N1 or N2 M0

17

What TNM is stage 3b breast?

T4, N0-2, M0

18

What TNM is stage 3c breast?

any T, N3, M0

19

What TNM is stage 4 breast?

Ant T, N, M1

20

What is the T stage in colorectal cancer?

Tis = just in muscularis mucosa
T1 = extends into submucosa
T2 = extends into muscularis propria
T3 = Grown through the muscularis propria to outer layers but not through them
T4 = Through the serosa to adjacent organs

21

What is the N stage of colorectal cancer?

N1 = 1-3 mesenteric nodes
N2 = >=4 mesenteric nodes

22

What TNM is stage 1 colon cancer?

T1 or T2, N0 M0

23

What TNM is stage 2 colon cancer?

T3 or T4 N0 M0

24

What TNM is stage 3 colon cancer?

Any T, N1 or 2, M0

25

What TNM is stage 4 colon cancer?

Any T, N M1