4.2 Hormones and Cancer Flashcards Preview

Block 5 > 4.2 Hormones and Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in 4.2 Hormones and Cancer Deck (17):
1

What are the risk factors for breast cancer>

Early menarche
Late menopause
Alcohol consumption
Post menopausal obesity
Hormone replacement therapy

2

What are the protective factors of breast cancer?

Pregnancy
Young age at first delivery
Prolonged lactation
Exercise

3

What occurs after menopause in terms of oestrogen production?

ACTH from the pituitary stimulates the adrenals to make androgens which will be converted in the periphery to make oestrogens

4

What types of breast cancer respond to endocrine therapy?

Hormone Receptor + (Er+ and/or Pg+)

5

What is the antioestrogen drug for breast cancer and what kind of drug is it and what is the normal dose?

Tamoxifen - Triphenylethylene non-steroidal antioestrogen
20mg daily

6

What is the treatment for post menopausal women?

Aromatase inhibitors

7

What increases in risk with tamoxifen use?

thromboembolism and endometrial cancer

8

What is the mechanism of action of tamoxifen?

Tamoxifen is a nonsteroidal agent that binds to estrogen receptors (ER), inducing a conformational change in the receptor. This makes the ER unavailable to bind oestradiol

9

What is the role of the aromatase enzyme?

Member of the c-P450 family and converts androgens into oestrogens

10

How do aromatase inhibitors work and what are the 3 examples?

Prevents the conversion of androgens into oestrogens

Non steroidal type 2: Anastrozole and Letrozole

Steroidal type 1: Exemestane

11

What is the suggested treatment for early breast cancer in per menopausal women?

Ovarian function suppression and tamoxifen

12

What are the side effects of AI?

joint pain, decreased bone mineral density - risk of fracture

13

Who do you give AIs to?

POST MENOPAUSAL

14

What is fulvestrant?

a pure antioestrogen

15

What is the mechanism of action of fulvestrant?

Downregulates the estrogen receptor

16

What kind of breast cancer is fulvestrant indicated in?

hormone receptor positive metastatic breast cancer

17

What is everolimus?

an MTOR inhibitor