Flashcards in 5.3 Pathology of male genital system Deck (25):
What are glands lined by?
Two layers of cells - epithelial on the luminal surface and basal at the periphery
What are copora amylacea?
Calcified concentrations within the glands
What are the causes of non neoplastic changes in the prostate?
Infection: acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis, TB prostatitis
Inflammation: non specific chronic prostatitis, granulomatous prostatitis, xanthogranulomatous prostatitis
Deposits: calculi, amyloid
What are the benign and malignant neoplasms of epithelial cells in the prostate?
Malignant: acinar adenocarcinoma
What are the benign and malignant neoplasms of mesenchymal cells in the prostate?
Malignant: Leiomyosarcoma, stromal sarcoma
What are the benign and malignant neoplasms of Mixed cells in the prostate?
Malignant: epithelial stromal sarcoma or invasions from nearby organs
What will you see histologically in BPH?
Hyperplasia of glands and stroma with the glands still lined by the two layers
What will you see histologically in prostatic adenocarcinoma?
Prominent nucleoli with a complete absence of basal cells
What can you use for diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma?
Digital rectal and US can help in diagnosis but biopsy needed for confirmation
What is the neoplastic condition of the penis?
What are the risk factors for penile Squamous carcinoma?
HPV 16 or 18 and non circumscision
Where do most penis SCC come from?
Glans or inner foreskin near coronal sulcus
What will you see histologically in SCC of the penis?
Infiltrating islands of squamous cells and keratin pearls
What is a hydrocoele
Collection of serous fluid in tunica vaginalis
What are the non neoplastic conditions of teh testis?
Cryptorchidism: undescended testis
What is the most common neoplasm of the testis?
What is the gross appearance of a seminoma?
homogenous, creamy white tumour (usually no necrosis of haemorrhage)
What is the histology of a seminoma?
Sheets of tightly packed cells with dark, central nuclei, prominent nucleolus and clear cytoplasm
What are the non seminomatous germ cell tumours?
teratoma, embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumour and choriocarcinoma
What is the common route of spread of seminom and non seminomatous germ cell tumours?
Seminoma: Lymph nodes
Non seminomatous: spread via blood stream (especially to lung)
What do you see in a teratoma and who usually gets it?
all 3 embryonic layers - skin, hair, cartilage, bone which are well differentiated, benign and haphazard arrangement
Usually seen in young children
What is the usual appearance of an embryonal carcinoma and who is it most common in?
Sheets of immature pleomorphic cells in solid, tubular or papillary patterns with many mitoses and tumour giant cells
20-30 year olds
What is the usual appearance of a yolk sac tumour and who is it most common in?
Histologic appearance of forming solid, papillary and microcytic patterns
What is the usual appearance of a choriocacrinoma and who is it most common in?
Composed of trophoblastic tissue (cytotrophoblastic and syncytiotrophoblastic) which secrete HCG