5.3 Pathology of male genital system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 5.3 Pathology of male genital system Deck (25):
1

What are glands lined by?

Two layers of cells - epithelial on the luminal surface and basal at the periphery

2

What are copora amylacea?

Calcified concentrations within the glands

3

What are the causes of non neoplastic changes in the prostate?

Infection: acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis, TB prostatitis

Inflammation: non specific chronic prostatitis, granulomatous prostatitis, xanthogranulomatous prostatitis

Deposits: calculi, amyloid

4

What are the benign and malignant neoplasms of epithelial cells in the prostate?

Benign: adenosis
Malignant: acinar adenocarcinoma

5

What are the benign and malignant neoplasms of mesenchymal cells in the prostate?

Benign: leiomyoma
Malignant: Leiomyosarcoma, stromal sarcoma

6

What are the benign and malignant neoplasms of Mixed cells in the prostate?

benign: BPH
Malignant: epithelial stromal sarcoma or invasions from nearby organs

7

What will you see histologically in BPH?

Hyperplasia of glands and stroma with the glands still lined by the two layers

8

What will you see histologically in prostatic adenocarcinoma?

Prominent nucleoli with a complete absence of basal cells

9

What can you use for diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma?

Digital rectal and US can help in diagnosis but biopsy needed for confirmation

10

What is the neoplastic condition of the penis?

Squamous carcinoma

11

What are the risk factors for penile Squamous carcinoma?

HPV 16 or 18 and non circumscision

12

Where do most penis SCC come from?

Glans or inner foreskin near coronal sulcus

13

What will you see histologically in SCC of the penis?

Infiltrating islands of squamous cells and keratin pearls

14

What is a hydrocoele

Collection of serous fluid in tunica vaginalis

15

What are the non neoplastic conditions of teh testis?

Cryptorchidism: undescended testis
Torsion

16

What is the most common neoplasm of the testis?

Seminoma

17

What is the gross appearance of a seminoma?

homogenous, creamy white tumour (usually no necrosis of haemorrhage)

18

What is the histology of a seminoma?

Sheets of tightly packed cells with dark, central nuclei, prominent nucleolus and clear cytoplasm

19

What are the non seminomatous germ cell tumours?

teratoma, embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumour and choriocarcinoma

20

What is the common route of spread of seminom and non seminomatous germ cell tumours?

Seminoma: Lymph nodes

Non seminomatous: spread via blood stream (especially to lung)

21

What do you see in a teratoma and who usually gets it?

all 3 embryonic layers - skin, hair, cartilage, bone which are well differentiated, benign and haphazard arrangement

Usually seen in young children

22

What is the usual appearance of an embryonal carcinoma and who is it most common in?

Sheets of immature pleomorphic cells in solid, tubular or papillary patterns with many mitoses and tumour giant cells

20-30 year olds

23

What is the usual appearance of a yolk sac tumour and who is it most common in?

Histologic appearance of forming solid, papillary and microcytic patterns

24

What is the usual appearance of a choriocacrinoma and who is it most common in?

Composed of trophoblastic tissue (cytotrophoblastic and syncytiotrophoblastic) which secrete HCG

25

What are the markers of testicular tumours and what do they test for?

AFP: yolk sac tumour
HCG: trophoblatic and some seminomas
LDH