4.1 Digestive System part 2 (Submucosal secretions) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4.1 Digestive System part 2 (Submucosal secretions) Deck (50):
1

Submucosal secretions into the GI tract are from the...

Glandular epithelium in (salivary glands, stomach, pancreas, liver, small intestine, large intestine...)

2

Are the glands that produce submucosal secretions considered exocrine or endocrine glands?

Exocrine

3

What two types of saliva do the salivary glands produce?

Serous and mucous

4

Serous saliva

Solubilizes food

5

Mucous saliva

Lubricates passage of food

6

What counteracts acidic foods? (Salivary gland secretions)

Buffers (sodium bicarbonate)

7

Salivary amylase

Initiates carbohydrate digestion by chemical digestion of food
-Breaks starch into disaccharides

8

4 layers of stomach lining

Mucosa
Submucosa
Muscularis
Serosa

9

Mucousal cells of the gastric pits

Mucous cells
Parietal cells
Chief cells
Endocrine (G) cells

10

Mucous cells

Secrete mucus on surface and in neck of glands, protect stomach wall from damage by acid and enzymes

11

Parietal cells

Secrete HCl

12

Chief cells

Produce pepsinogen enzyme, converted to active pepsin by stomach acidity (works best at pH less than 3)

13

Endocrine (G) cells

Produce hormones (Gastrin, histamine)

14

What enzyme takes carbon dioxide and water to make bicarbonate?

Carbonic anyhydrase

15

Net effect of HCl production by parietal cells

Stomach pH drops
Blood pH rises

16

Is the H+ going into the stomach active or passive transport?

Active

17

Is the HCO3 going into the blood active or passive transport?

Passive

18

Cells make up ____ but they themselves have _____

Villi, microvilli

19

Lacteal in small intestine

Lymph tissue, fat absorption

20

Enterocyte

Often called S cells because they are secreting

21

Where does the blood go after leaving the small intestine?

The liver! It gets first dibs on the nutrients absorbed from the intestine

22

What enzymes are bound to the plasma membrane of absorptive epithelial cells of the small intestine?

Disaccharides, peptidases and enteropeptidase

23

Enteropeptidase

Activates inactive pancreatic enzymes by proteolytic cleavage

24

Absorptive epithelial cells absorb chemically digested foodstuff, entry point for....

Glucose, amino acids, lipids...

25

Goblet cells in small intestine

In duodenal glands, secrete mucus

26

Enteroendocrine cells

Secrete hormones (Secretin, CCK)

27

Paneth cells

Activate pancreatic proteases, phagocytize larger food borne materials

28

Exocrine pancreas: Islet or Acinar cells?

Acinar

29

Which cells lead to pancreatic cancer?

Acinar cells, can digest the tissue around them

30

Acinar cells

Secrete digestive enzymes that target the four main biomolecules

31

Acinar cells: Protein

Secreate proteases (trypsin and chymotrypsin) secreted as proenzymes

32

What are the proenzymes secreted by acinar cells activated by?

Other enzymes residing on small intestine brush border

33

Acinar cells: Carbohydrates

Pancreatic amylase: digests starch

34

Acinar cells: Lipids

Pancreatic lipase: Digests lipids (triglycerides)

35

Acinar cells: nucleic acids

Pancreatic nucleases: Digest DNA and RNA

36

Intercalated duct cells

Aqueous component of pancreatic secretions
(NaHCO3- neutralizes HCl in duodenum)

37

Net effect of pancreatic secretions into intestine

Intestine pH rises
Blood pH drops

38

Hepatic portal vein

Carries deoxygenated, yet nutrient-rich blood from small intestine directly to the liver

39

Hepatic artery

Carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the liver

40

Hepatic duct

Carries bile secretions to small intestine

41

What are the cells actually doing the function in the liver called?

Hepatocytes

42

Liver functions

Bile Production
Detoxification
Nutrient storage, synthesis, delivery

43

What does the liver make?

Plasma proteins, albumen, fibrinogen, clotting factors

44

Function of bile

-Buffers stomach acid (NaHCO3)
-Emulsifies fats (bile salts)

45

Liver detoxification

-Amine acid metabolism creates ammonia, requires conversion to urea
-Metabolize alcohol, drugs, foreign food molecules

46

What does the liver do with vitamins and minerals?

Takes them in

47

What does the liver do with cholesterol?

Lipoproteins for lipid transport to tissues

48

What is the major secretion of the large intestine?

Mucus by goblet cells

49

What is the main role of the large intestine?

Reabsorption of salts and water
-Epithelial cells reabsorb salts, water follows by osmosis

50

Colorectal cancer
How deadly?
Precancerous...
Starts where?

Second deadliest
-Precancerous Polyps
-Starts in crypts