4.1 Histopathology of common skin neoplasms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4.1 Histopathology of common skin neoplasms Deck (40):
1

What are the three layers of the skin?

Epidermis
Dermis
Subcutis (hypodermis)

2

What are the layers and components of the epidermis?

Stratum corneum
Stratum ganulosum
Stratum spinosum
Stratum basale
Keratinocytes
Basal cells
Melanocytes

3

Define macule

flat discoloured lesion up to 10mm

4

Define patch

flat discoloured lesion >10mm

5

Define papule

elevated (dome, flat topped) lesion up to 10mm

6

Define nodule

Elevated (dome) lesion >10mm

7

Define plaque

elevated flat topped lesion >10mm

8

Define vesicle

fluid filled lesion up to 10mm

9

Define bulla

fluid filled raised lesion >10mm

10

Define pustule

pus filled raised lesion

11

Define Lichenification

thickened rough skin with prominent markings

12

Define excoriation

traumatic lesion with breakage of the epidermis and raw liner area

13

What is hyperkeratosis

thickening of the stratum corneum

14

What is parakeratosis

retention of nuclei in stratum corneum

15

What is hypergranulosis

hyperplasia of the stratum corneum

16

What is acanthosis

Diffuse epidermal hyperplasia

17

What is papillomatosis

Surface elevation caused by hyperplasia and enlarged dermal papillae

18

What is spongioisis

intracellular edema of epidermis

19

What is dyskeratosis

abnormal premature keratinization below stratum granulosum

20

What neoplasms can you have of the keratinocytes

Epidermal cyst
Actinic (solar) keratosis
SCC
Keratoacanthoma

21

What neoplasms can you have of basal cells?

Seborrhoeic keratosis
BCC

22

What neoplasms can you have with melanocytes?

Ephelis (freckles)
Lentigo (age spots)
Naevocellular naevi (moles)
Melanome

23

What is the microscopic appearance of epidermal cysts?

Keratin debris containing cyst lined by benign squamous epithelium (found in the dermis) - benign

24

What is the appearance of actinic keratosis and who does it usually occur in?

Scaly patches due to too much keratin (confined to the epidermis) - usually in the elderly from sun exposure

25

What is the microscopic appearance of actinic keratosis?

Hyperkeratosis
Epidermal dysplastic (neoplastic but not invasive)
Solar elastosis of the dermal collagen

26

What is the treatment of actinic keratosis and why is it important?

Freezing, curettage, topical treatments, excision

Important because it is a precursor for SCC

27

What is the macroscopic appearance of SCC?

Nodular, scaly, ulcerated
- Red scaling plaques when in situ
- Nodular keratin producing when invaded

28

What is the microscopic appearance of SCC?

Invasion beyond BM
Resemble keratinocytes
Focal keratinization

29

What is the appearance of Solar elastosis?

Looks blue as apposed to healthy pink collagen bundles

30

What is the macroscopic appearance of keratocnathoma?

Crateriform

31

What is the microscopic appearance of keratocanthoma?

Nodule with a central crater filled with keratin

32

What type of neoplasm is keratocanthoma?

Benign rapidly developing neoplasm which mimics a well differentiated SCC

33

What is the macroscopic appearance of seborrhoeic keratosis?

Raised warty lesions

34

What is the microscopic appearance of seborrhoeic keratosis?

Proliferation of benign basal cells
Keratin nests

35

what is the macroscopic appearance of BCC?

Pearly papules with surface telangiectasia (blood vessels)

36

What is the microscopic appearance of BCC?

Malignant basal cells
Peripheral palisading
Apoptotic debris
Retraction artefact - clefting around

37

What are ephelis?

Freckles which appear after sun exposure

38

What is the microscopic appearance of ephelis?

Increased melanin pigment in basal layer but normal number of melanocytes

39

What are lentigo?

benign age spots which do not darken on sun exposure

40

What is the microscopic appearance of lentigo?

Linear (non nested) melanocytic hyperplasia
Above the BM