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Flashcards in 47.ALD Deck (32):
1

what does CORA stand for

Center of rotation of angulation

2

how is bone alignment objectively assessed

through examination of bone axes (mechanical and anatomical) and joint orientation

3

what is the joint orientation angle

the intersection of a bone axis and a joint orientation line

4

front vs sagittal vs transverse planes

frontal--evaluated on Cr Cd rad--valgus, varussagittal--evaluated on M-L rad--procurvatum, recurvatumtransverse--evaluated axially--torsional malformations6 possible deformities can be presentdeformity is defined by DISTAL portion in relationship to proximal portion

5

define anatomic vs mechanic bone axis

anatomic--line that passes through CENTER or middiaphysis of the bonemechanical--line connecting the center points of the joints proximal and distal to the bone--may be more helpful for sigmoid shape bones (ie. tibia, humerus)--represent weight bearing axis

6

normal mLDHA for large breed nonchondrodystrophic skeletally mature dogs

87 +/- 3 degrees

7

landmarks for proxial radial joint orientation line

proximolateral---radial headproximomedial--medial portion of coronoid process

8

normal procurvatum of the radius

27(study in labradors--sagitttal plane)

9

other joint orientation angles (in frontal and sagittal planes) for proximal and distal radius

proximal close to 90MP (frontal) 83LD (frontal) 86CdP (sagittal) 85CdD (sagittal) 77********procurvatum 27

10

formulation to determine degrees of procurvatum

(90-aCdPRA) + (90-aCdDRA) + thetaTheta is angle creative on sagittal film from intersection of both proximal and distal bone axes

11

difference btwn rotation and torsion

torsion is within the bonerotation refers to motion about a joint

12

proximal joint orientation line of proximal femur landmarks

center of femoral head to the dorsal most aspect of the greater trochanter

13

anatomic bone axis of the femur

determined by a line that connects the points selected at 33% and 50% below the proximal aspect of the femoral neck in the middle of the femur

14

T/Fthe anatomic bone axis will deviate from the center of the bone in the femur

TRUEthe anatomic bone axis will deviate from the center of the bone in the femur because NORMAL femoral VARUS (ends just lateral to the intercondylar notch)

15

mechanical axis of the femur

line from center of femoral head to center of the distal femoral joint orientation line

16

angle of anteversion

measured on CT or axial radiographangle btwn the neck and the frontal plane described by the caudal aspect of the femoral condyles~27 (range 16-31.3)

17

angle of inclination

measure on frontal radiographangle formed by the proximal femoral anatomic axis and a line that originates at the center of the femoral headcoxa vara---decreasedcoxa valgus--increasedN GSD 132N LABS, GOLDENS 134N ROTTS 137

18

proximal and distal, lateral anatomic and mechanical joint axes of the femur

>90 but < 100 degrees

19

T/Fmechanical bone axis is used in the tibia

TRUE due to sigmoid shape

20

proximal tibial angle is reciprocal of what joint angle

proximal tibial angle is reciprocal ofmCdPTAnormal values vary 24-26

21

torsion of > 15 degrees results in how much miscalculation of a frontal plane deformity

torsion > 15 degrees will result in miscalculation of up to 5 degrees of a frontal plane deformity

22

surgical planning for CORA based corrections

--know normals axes and joint angles of good leg--rads, CT, stereolithography--locate CORA--define plane of deformity (uniplanar, biplanar)--define magnitude CORA--locate osteotomy--angulation correction axis

23

T/Fthe magnitude of the CORA equates to the degree of correction required to eliminate the deformity

TRUE

24

T/FThe plane of the CORA is ALWAYS in the direction OPPOSITE of how the bone is deviated

TRUE plane of the CORA is ALWAYS in the direction OPPOSITE of how the bone is deviatedpur frontal deformity with valgus (lateral deviation of dotal portion) then the plane of deformity is medial

25

partially compensated vs NONcompensated CORA

applies to BIAPICAL deformities (2 CORAs present)partially compensated--both CORAs with planes in the OPPOSITE directionnoncompensated--both CORAs with planes in the SAME direction

26

what is a translational deformity

when no angulation is present but the proximal and distal segments are NOT co-linear but rather shifted relative to one another

27

what is the angulation correction axis

the hinge point upon which rotation of two segments of bone can be madealways possesses a PERPENDICULAR relationship to the plane of the deformity

28

palsy's three rules of osteotomies

1. osteotomy and angular correction axis are co-linear with CORA--realignment occurs2. osteotomy is achieved at a different location than angular correction axis which is based on CORA--translation occurs (ex. TPLO, junta-articular corrections) but still co-linear3. osteotomy and angular correction axis is at a different spot from CORA--translation and NOT co-linear

29

types of osteotomies for correction of ALD

1. opening wedge (osteotomy)2. closing wedge (ostectomy)3. radial (cylindrical)--match blade diameter to bone diameter3. true dome--size matched blade to widest dimension

30

on what side of the bone is an opening CORA vs a closing CORA

Neutral CORA is where intersecting axes are formedbut really the CORA is made up a infinite CORAs along the transverse bisecting lineconvex side CORA--opening CORAconcave side CORA--closing CORA

31

T/Ftrue dome osteotomies correct deformities in all three planes

TRUEtrue dome osteotomies correct deformities in all three planesradial(cylindrical) only corrects in one plane

32

types of fixation following ALD corrective osteotomies

--internal fix bone plate (often with closing wedge to have load sharing); compression vs locking plates--linear ESF (need robust designs for opening wedge)--circular, hybrids ESF (good for juxta-articular deformities)

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