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Flashcards in 99. Nasal Cavity Deck (35):

three nasal cartilages and dorsal and lateral support to the nose

1. dorsolateral nasal cartilage (ala nasi)2. ventrolateral nasal cartilage3. accessory nasal cartilagedorsal nasal ligament (connects cartilage to nasal bone)paired lateral nasal ligaments


names of the air passages within the nasal cavity

MEATUSES (airways)dorsal, middle, ventral and commonvs. conchae (turbinates)--dorsal, middle, ventral and ethmoidal


three paranasal sinuses

1. maxillary recess2. sphenoid sinus3. front sinus


what is the choanae

rostral part of the nasaopharyngeal meatus (airway) and the caudal border of the nasal cavity


borders of the nasopharynx

caudal to the nasal cavitydorsal--vomer boneventral--hard/soft palatelateral--palatine boneauditory tube enters the caudal nasopharynx (near pterygoid bone)


functions of the nose

1. olfaction (caudally)2. moisture and heat exchange (rostrally/thru rich vascular supply)


diagnostic approach to nasal disease

1. PE2. assess airflow3. oral exam and nasopharyngeal exam (use GA, digital palpation and visualization)4. Endoscopy (rhinoscopy/nasopharyngoscopy)5. intra-oral DV, open mouth VD, rostrocaudal frontal sinus radiographs6. advanced imaging (CT--esp of post radiation expected/MRI)


ddx for dogs and cats with nasal disease

1. neoplasia (Adca, SCC, lymphoma)2. inflammatory (polyp)3. infectious (fungal, viral,bacT, nasal mite)4. FB5. dental disease with nasal extension6. idiopathic rhinosinuitis7. congenital abN (choanal atresia, ciliary dyskinesis)8. nasopharyngeal stenosis


signs consistent with neoplasia on advanced imaging of the nose in dogs

BONE LYSIS/regional destructioncontrast enhancement of massseptal or cribiform destruction fungal masses may be cavitary with destruction present and inflammatory masses do not have destruction of bone and may not contrast enhancethese findings are debated in cats


percent of cats with inflammatory disease of the nose with concurrent bulla effusion/thickening in the absence of otitis externa



T/Fseptal deviation and sinus asymmetry is normal in cats



samples to submit for diagnosis of naso/nasopharyngeal disease

FNAcytology brushflushswabimprint (greater sensitivity than brush cytology)histopathculture (secondary bacT infxn common)PCR for opportunistic bugs (Mycoplasma and Bartonella))Ag serology (cryptococcus--cats)--HIGH SN/SP


percent of masses found on retroflex nasopharyngoscopy that would have been missed on routine rhinoscopy



most common surgically addressed disease of the nasal planum

SCC (may transform from actinic dermatitis)--sunlight--papillomavirus--locally invasive--older white catsneoplasia is more common in cats> dogs in this regionother tumors possible


survival time of surgically resected nasal SCC

surgery alone 4 monthsradiation alone 6 monthslocal recurrence is commonadjunct therapies may be required (cryotx, radiation, photodynamic tx, plesiotherapym intralesional chemo)


stenotic nares pathophysiology

obstruction from axially oriented dorsolateral cartilages AND potentially abN conchae development (extending rostrally or cranially with abN branching) and presence of nasopharyngeal turbinates contribute to upper airway obstruction (BCAS)substantial NEG pressure needed to overcome obstruction leads to tissue edema, laryngeal and tracheal collapse in varying degrees


breed associated with nasopharyngeal turbinates

82% pugs


most common tumor type in dogs vs cats of the nasal caity



T/Fcytoreductive surgery has been shown to improve survival in dogs with intranasal neoplasia

FALSEcytoreductive surgery has NOT shown to improve survival in dogs with intranasal neoplasia---offer radiation therapy for adenocarcinoma of nasal cavity MST 8-19 months--one study showed nasal extenteration following radiation sign improved survival but high complications because of previous radiation field


feline upper respiratory tract infection complex

herpesviruscalicivirusChlamydophilaMycoplasmaBordetellaself limiting, support, may lead to chronic idiopathic rhinitis


most common fungal pathogen of the nose in dogs

--aspergillus fumigatus(others: blastomycosis, pythium insidiosum)--young large breed dogs--destructive rhinitistx: trephination of sinus with infusion clotrimazole or enilconazole (highly invasive)ORballoon catheters into nasal cavity and occlusion of nasopharnyx and infusion of clotrimazole or enilconazole90% treated with multiple (up to 4) doses


most common fungal pathogen of the nose in cats

--cryptococcus neoforms


nasal mite

pneumonyssoides caninum


nasopharyngeal polyps

--inflammatory benign condition---younger cats--arises from mucosa of the auditory tube, middle ear, or nasopharynx--55% bulla changes on CT


treatment for nasopharyngeal polyps

--traction-avulsion +/- VBO: up to 50% recurrence with traction alone--VBOhorners and vestibular signs can be expected post op


choanal atresia

congenital abN in which membrane fails to resorb and there is a lack of communication btwn the nose and the nasopharynxcomplete or partial (unilateral)osseous or membranoustx: balloon dilatation or open excision with choanal reconstruction


nasopharyngeal stenosis

congenital (rare thickening of palatopharyngeal muscles in Dachshunds) most often acquiredtx:1. surgery resect stenosis: webbing and restenosis occur(need good tissue apposition)2. multiple balloon dilation--endoscopic guided 3. stent (BEMS) placement with endoscopy or fluoroscopy any of these procedures +/- intralesional triamcinolone or mitomycin C


surgical techniques for stenotic nares

1. vertical wedge resection2. horizontal wedge resection3. Traders technique4. punch biopsy technique5. lateral wedge resection6. alapexy(scalpel, CO2 laser--3-5W continuous waveform with fine tip, electrosurgical techniques)


blood supply to the nasal cavity

maxillary artery---major palatine and infraorbital arteryonce infraorbital artery leaves infraorbital foramen, branches into dorsal and lateral nasal arteries


treatment for aberrant conchae

laser assisted turbinectomydiode laserused to ablate conchae and increase the ventral nasal meatus (airway)reduces airway resistance by 50% in BC dogs


why does bilateral carotid artery ligation need to be avoided in cats

tolerated in dogs NOT catscats have a much less robust cerebral blood supply and LACK of internal carotid artery increases brain ischemic damage if external carotid is ligated


4 approaches to the nasal cavity

1. dorsal (most common)2. ventral (ventral access to turbinates and cavity)3. lateral (unilateral exploration)4. alveolar mucosal (rostral cavity access)


post op considerations following surgery of a nasal cavity`

1. pain (less with ventral approach)2. hemorrhage (pack with gauze +/- petroleum, remove day 1 post op)3. SQ emphysema (dorsal approach--avoid with providing a blow hole caudally or gauze stent on top incision)4. reduce risk of aspiration by elevating head5. avoid entrance of the cranial vault to avoid pneumocephalicus and/or septic meningoencephalitis6. chronic nasal serous discharge with removal of turbinates


closure of the soft palate

THREE layersnasopharyngealmuscularoropharngeal



1. trephine2. longitudinal skin incision3. transverse skin incisiontrephine, burr, sagittal saw

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