79.Axial pattern flaps Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 79.Axial pattern flaps Deck (36):

difference btwn axial pattern flap and sub dermal plexus flap

axial pattern flap relies on blood supply from a direct cutaneous artery and vein incorporated into the flap---allows for a larger flap with increased survivalcan be rotated 180 degreepenninsula vs island flapcan also come as composite flaps (can include underlying muscle, bone or cartilage)


survival rates of axial pattern flaps

87-100%the tips of the flap are most prone to necrosis but mean survival of an axial pattern flap is at least 50% greater than fro sub dermal plexus flap


advantages of axial pattern flap

--larger--cover bigger defects--rely on direct cutaneous vessel--more consistent blood supply, does not require delay phenomenon--can cover bone, tendon, ligaments--more consistent survival


disadvantages of axial pattern flap

--cosmesis (unwanted hair, mammae)--may be of limited use for distal extremities--regional anatomy may be variable (rely on US or doppler to find artery)


easiest and hardest direct cutaneous arteries to find

easiest--caudal superficial epigastricshardest--cranial cervical artery


T/Fdogs have a much higher density of tertiary and higher order blood vessels than cats (especially over the trunk)

TRUEless cutaneous perfusion to the uninjured skin in catscats heal slower and risk greater tissue necrosis with flapspreserve SQ fat in cats!


angularis oris flap

use: facial, nasal, palatal defectbase: labial commissuredorsal incision: ventral aspect zygomatic archventral incision: ventral mandibular ramuslength incision: to vertical ear canal(branch of facial artery)


superficial temporal flap

use: maxillofacial, eyelid defectsbase: zygomatic archrostral incision: along lateral orbital rimcaudal incision: rostral to ear baselength incision: middle of contralateral dorsal orbital rim


caudal auricular flap

use: neck, facial, ear, dorsal head defectsbase: depression btwn wing of atlas and vertical ear canaldorsal incision: parallel from base, centered over lateral neckventral incision: parallel from base, centered over lateral necklength incision: spine of scapula


superficial cervical branch of omocervical flap*

use: facial, ear, cervical shoulder, axillary defectscranial incision: parallel to caudal incision and equidistant to cranial scapular spinecaudal incision: acromion to dorsally over scapular spinelength incision: variable; contralateral shoulder


superficial brachial flap

use: antebrachial, elbow defectsbase: centered over dorsal third of elbow's flexor surfacelateral and medial incisions: parallel from base, taper togetherlength incision: distal to greater tubercle humerus


thoracodorsal flap*

use: thoracic, shoulder, forelimb, axillary defectscranial incision: from acromion dorsally over scapular spinecaudal incision: parallel to cranial incision and equidistant to caudal scapular spinelength incision: variable; contralateral shoulder


lateral thoracic flap

use: elbow, axillary, upper extremity defectsbase: axillary skin foldventral incision: parallel to dorsal border of deep pectoral muscledorsal incision: below origin of thoracodorsal artery (near acromion)length incision: terminates at/before costal chondral arch (second teat NOT included)


cranial superficial epigastric flap

use: sternal defectsbase: caudal to thoracic cage on either side of midlinemedial incision: abdominal midlinelateral incision: parallel to medial incision and equidistant to teatslength incision: includes glands 3,4


caudal superficial epigastric flap*

use: caudal abdominal, flank, inguinal, preputial, perineal, thigh, stifle defectsmedial incision: abdominal midlinelateral incision: parallel to medial incision and equidistant to teatslength incision: may include glands 2-5


DORSAL deep circumflex iliac flap

DORSAL Use: ipsilateral flank, lateral lumbar, pelvic, lateromedial thigh, greater trochanter defectsbase: cranioventral edge of wing of iliumcaudal incision: midway btwn greater trochanter and ilium extending dorsallycranial incision: parallel to caudal incision and equidistant to the iliac winglength incision: dorsal to contralateral flank fold


VENTRAL deep circumflex iliac flap

VENTRALUse: lateral abdominal wall, pelvic and sacral defectsbase: cranioventral edge of wing of iliumcaudal incision: midway btwn greater trochanter and ilium extending ventrally cranial to femur shaftcranial incision: parallel to caudal incisionlength incision: proximal to patella


lateral genicular flap

Use: medial stifle or tibial defectsbase: 1 cm proximal to patella and 1.5 cm distal to TT (laterally)dorsal and ventral incisions: parallel from base extending caudodorsally along femoral shaft length incision: distal to greater trochanter


reverse saphenous conduit flap

saphenous artery and vein from femoral artery and veinrequires intact collateral circulation to distal extremityUse: tarsometatarsal defectsProximal incision: distal incision:length incision: variable;


T/Fthe presence of granulation tissue is required for axial flaps

FALSEgranulation tissue is NOT required for axial pattern flaps HOWEVER the recipient bed should be free of gross contamination


most robust and versatile axial pattern flaps

caudal superficial epigastricthoracodorsal


% survival and % partial tip necrosis seen with thoracodorsal flap

98% survival (but were not rotated)70% experience partial tip necrosis


maximum length of a caudal superficial epigastric flap

maximum gap length would include the second mammary gland


what muscle is in the caudal superficial epigastric flap

dissect below (in order to include) the supramammaruis muscledissect ABOVE external abdominal oblique


mean survival btwn cranial and caudal superficial epigastrics

95% caudal87% cranial


important structures near and under angularis oris flap

facial nerve branches (dorsal, ventral, auriculopalpebral)branches of auriculotemporal nerveparotid salivary ductfacial vein


survival rate of caudal auricular flap



survival rate and degree of flap necrosis of genicular flap to cover tibial defects

89% survival10-30% necrosis


reverse saphenous conduit flap is dependent on what

dependent on REVERSE flow through the vascular anastomoses btwn branches of the cranial tibial and saphenous arteries and btwn branches of the medial and lateral saphenous veinsrequires intact collateral circulation in order to achieve reverse flow


outcome of reverse saphenous conduit flap

CONGESTION from reverse flow of blood through veins


latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap

type V vascular pattern (single dominant vascular pedicle with segmental vascular pedicle)dorsally--thoracodorsal arteryventrally--lateral thoracic arterysome intercostal arteries (deep to lats)


location of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap

craniodorsal point is at the level just ventral to acromion and caudal to triceps ventral point is lower 1/3 of humerusincised caudodorsally to the level of the 13th rib


cause of necrosis of axial pattern flaps

*** inadequate blood perfusion ***----flap elevation will decr perfusion----rotation can cause vascular obstruction----tension compromises vasculature ----hematoma or seroma formation increases interstitial P and vascular compromise----poor surgical technique


monitor for flap survival

--color (may be hard if pigmented, devoid artery (pale), devoid vein (congested)--warmth--bleeding (prick center)--laser doppler--fluorescein (has not correlated with sup.temp.flaps)**most flaps will declare themselves by the end of 6 days**


T/Fflaps are partially denervated

TRUEthis flap thermoregulation and pain sensation may be disrupted making subjective assessment of flap survival difficult


salvage of failing flaps

1. if partial tip necrosis---heal by second intention2. if too much tension--release borders3. pentoxifylline, vasodilators, Ca channel blockers4. hyperbaric oxygen5. VACstudies on efficacy are conflicting!

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