What are neuroglial/schwann cells? (vs neurons)
they are the support cells, aka ‘nerve glue’ that provide structure, support and nutrition for neurons, and increase the speed of nerve impulses. (ex oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, etc) they are more than half the brain.
At what age is the brain fully developed?
What is included in the infratentorium or posterior fossa?
Cerebellum and brain stem (pons and medulla)
Brain function by location: supratentorial
contains the cerebrum, the largest part which has higher function like thought and action. movement, sensory processing, olfaction, language, communication, learning, memory. seizure foci here too.
Brain function by location: infratentorial
cerebellum and brain stem, balance/coordination, autonomic functions like HR and breathing, also possibly emotional function like fear, attention and language. However it is most closely associated with movement.
What are the two areas in the cerebral cortex linked to speech?
Broca (left - motor aspects of speech) and Wernicke’s (posterior to Broca, understanding of written and spoken language)
What is the ‘personality center’ of the brain?
What part of the brain is responsible for interpreting sounds, long-term memory, taste and smell? and most common place for seizure foci
What/where is the occipital lobe
above cerebellum, does visual interpretation
The diencephalon contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, and pineal glands.
What are the functions of those places?
Pineal - reproductive/melatonin
Thalamus -major ‘integrating’ center for impulses
Hypothalamus - maintains constant internal environment and implements behavior patterns.
Symptoms of tumors that can cause hypothalamic or thalamic dysfunction? (whether or not it has invaded.)
diabetes insipidus, SIADH.
What are the possible symptoms of diencephalic syndrome from a tumor in the thalamic, hypothalamic and pineal regions?
FTT, emaciation, muscle wasting in an infant who is happy, displays hyperkinesis and has an increased appetite with high caloric consumption
What does the pons do and where is it located?
a bulge below the midbrain - acts as a bridge to transmit info from cerebellum to brainstem. controls respirations and cranial nerves V-VIII
What part of the brain contorls HR/RR/BP, coughing/sneezing and swallowing/vomiting
Locatiosn for LPs?
between L3 and L4 or L4 and L5. this is because the spinal cord ends at the first lumbar vertabra, (and goes on to form cauda equina) so there is no danger of damage to cord in these locations.
how much csf produced per day?
600 mLs, with 125-150 circulating at a time
What could this be:
initially restless, anxious and irritable, and later on bradycardia, htn, and papilledema
increased ICP. often accompanied by HA that is increasing
2 types of shunts?
ventriculoperitoneal (VP) is internalized but places patient at higher risk of infection. , or ventriculostomy (temporary external to avoid an internal/long term shunt)