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Flashcards in 7-8(2) Deck (34)
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1

In determining your traits, your ______ sets a range of possible characteristics, called your _______ __________, and your activities determine what portion of that range is manifested in your body.

In determining your traits, your DNA sets a range of possible characteristics, called your genetic tendency, and your activities determine what portion of that range is manifested in your body.

2

The three factors that determine the characteristics of a person are ______________, _________________, and ______________________.

The three factors that determine the characteristics of a person are genetic factors, environmental factors, and spiritual factors.

3

Of the three factors listed above, __________________ are laid down first. The information in an organism’s DNA is split up into little groups known as _________.

Of the three factors listed above, genetic factors are laid down first. The information in an organism’s DNA is split up into little groups known as genes.

4

By and large, the tasks that a cell can complete are dependent on the ___________ that it produces.

By and large, the tasks that a cell can complete are dependent on the proteins that it produces.

5

Like DNA, the nucleotides of _____ join together in long strands. Unlike DNA, however, they do not form a ________ _______. Like DNA, ______ has four nucleotide bases: __________, __________, ____________,and ___________. Of these four nucleotide bases, __________links to __________ (and vice-versa), and __________links to __________ (and vice-versa). Unlike DNA, the sugar that makes up the foundation of the nucleotides in ______ is ________.

Like DNA, the nucleotides of RNA join together in long strands. Unlike DNA, however, they do not form a double helix. Like DNA, RNA has four nucleotide bases: adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil. Of these four nucleotide bases, adenine links to uracil (and vice-versa), and cytosine links to guanine (and vice-versa). Unlike DNA, the sugar that makes up the foundation of the nucleotides in RNA is ribose.

6

One of RNA’s jobs is to take a “negative image” of the cell’s DNA out of the ___________ and to the _______________. The RNA that does this job is called __________________________.

One of RNA’s jobs is to take a “negative image” of the cell’s DNA out of the nucleus and to the ribosome. The RNA that does this job is called messenger RNA (mRNA).

7

Protein synthesis in the cell can be split into two basic steps: ___________ and ___________.

Protein synthesis in the cell can be split into two basic steps: transcription and translation.

8

In ___________, ________ make a “negative image” of the cell’s DNA. It does this by building a molecule that has __________anywhere the DNA has a thymine, __________ anywhere DNA has an adenine, __________anywhere that DNA has a guanine, and __________anywhere that DNA has a cytosine. The newly-built _______ molecule then leaves the _________ and heads to the __________.

In transcription, mRNA make a “negative image” of the cell’s DNA. It does this by building a molecule that has adenine anywhere the DNA has a thymine, uracil anywhere DNA has an adenine, cytosine anywhere that DNA has a guanine, and guanine anywhere that DNA has a cytosine. The newly-built mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and heads to the ribosome.

9

The information in the ________ that leaves the nucleus is contained in a three-nucleotide-base sequence called a ________. Each ________specifies an __________ in the protein that is to be made.

The information in the mRNA that leaves the nucleus is contained in a three-nucleotide-base sequence called a codon. Each codon specifies an amino acid in the protein that is to be made.

10

Translation occurs at the ________, which is surrounded by a lot of RNA molecules that have an __________ attached. This type of RNA is called _____________________. The tRNA has a three- nucleotide-base sequence called an __________. If one of these __________can link to a _______ on the mRNA, it will do so, pulling the __________ along with it. This causes __________ to line up in the particular sequence specified by the mRNA, and the amino acids are then linked to form a ______.

Translation occurs at the ribosome, which is surrounded by a lot of RNA molecules that have an amino acid attached. This type of RNA is called transfer RNA (tRNA). The tRNA has a three- nucleotide-base sequence called an anticodon. If one of these anticodons can link to a codon on the mRNA, it will do so, pulling the amino acid along with it. This causes amino acids to line up in the particular sequence specified by the mRNA, and the amino acids are then linked to form a protein.

11

A __________ that has the sequence adenine, uracil, guanine will attract a tRNA molecule with an __________ that has the sequence __________, __________, __________.

A codon that has the sequence adenine, uracil, guanine will attract a tRNA molecule with an anticodon that has the sequence uracil, adenine, cytosine.

12

Eukaryotic genes contain sections called ________ (instructions for making a protein) and ______ (best described as “spacers”). Between _________ and _______, the mRNA must be processed. This processing removes the ________ and splices the ______ together.

Eukaryotic genes contain sections called exons (instructions for making a protein) and introns (best described as “spacers”). Between transcription and translation, the mRNA must be processed. This processing removes the introns and splices the exons together.

13

The ______ of a eukaryotic cell is tightly bound together with a network of proteins. Certain proteins, called _____________, act as spools, which wind up small stretches of ______. The DNA wrapped around these _____________ form what could be described as “beads on a string,” which we call _____________. Other proteins stabilize and support these spools, making a complex network of DNA coils and proteins. This network is called a _____________.

The DNA of a eukaryotic cell is tightly bound together with a network of proteins. Certain proteins, called histones, act as spools, which wind up small stretches of DNA. The DNA wrapped around these histones form what could be described as “beads on a string,” which we call nucleosomes. Other proteins stabilize and support these spools, making a complex network of DNA coils and proteins. This network is called a chromosome.

14

Asexual reproduction in eukaryotic cells is called ________. The stages of this process, in order, are ________, ________, ________, and ________. When the cell is not reproducing, it is said to be in ________. This process takes one __________ cell and produces two __________ cells.

Asexual reproduction in eukaryotic cells is called mitosis. The stages of this process, in order, are prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. When the cell is not reproducing, it is said to be in interphase. This process takes one diploid cell and produces two diploid cells.

15

In a __________ cell, chromosomes come in ____________ pairs. A __________ cell has only one member from each pair.

In a diploid cell, chromosomes come in homologous pairs. A haploid cell has only one member from each pair.

16

The familiar “X” shape a chromosome takes occurs because _____________________________ _________________________. Nevertheless, this still counts as only ________ chromosome.

The familiar “X” shape a chromosome takes occurs because the chromosome is duplicated, and the duplicate is attached. Nevertheless, this still counts as only one chromosome.

17

Genetically, sex is determined by ____________, which typically come in two forms: __ and __.

Genetically, sex is determined by sex chromosomes, which typically come in two forms: X and Y.

18

__________ is the process by which _______ are produced for the purpose of sexual reproduction. It starts with one _________ cell and produces _______________. In males, ________ of the products are viable and are called ______. In females, _______ of the products is viable, and it is called an ___.

Meiosis is the process by which gametes are produced for the purpose of sexual reproduction. It starts with one diploid cell and produces four haploid cells. In males, all four of the products are viable and are called sperm. In females, only one of the products is viable, and it is called an egg.

19

____________ occurs in two broad steps, called ____________ and ____________. In the first step, the chromosomes are all duplicated, and then the _______________ are separated, resulting in _____________ with ___________ chromosomes. In the second step, the ___________ are separated from the ___________, resulting in a total of ___________________ with __________ chromosomes.

Meiosis occurs in two broad steps, called meiosis I and meiosis II. In the first step, the chromosomes are all duplicated, and then the homologous pairs are separated, resulting in two haploid cells with duplicated chromosomes. In the second step, the duplicates are separated from the originals, resulting in a total of four haploid cells with unduplicated chromosomes.

20

An organism has diploid cells that contain 20 chromosomes. If one of these cells undergoes mitosis, ____ cells with ___ chromosomes each will be produced. If it undergoes meiosis, _____ cells with ___ chromosomes each will be produced.

An organism has diploid cells that contain 20 chromosomes. If one of these cells undergoes mitosis, two cells with 20 chromosomes each will be produced. If it undergoes meiosis, four cells with 10 chromosomes each will be produced.

21

When two _______ cells fuse in fertilization, the result is a _______ cell, which is called a _____.

When two haploid cells fuse in fertilization, the result is a diploid cell, which is called a zygote.

22

A _____is a chemical entity that is not truly alive, but can infect cells via the ________________. Although it is not alive, it has either _____or _____as its genetic material, and that material is housed in a protective _____________. These chemical entities cause a wide range of ___________ in people and animals. One particular type of ______, the _________________, even infects bacteria.

A virus is a chemical entity that is not truly alive, but can infect cells via the lytic pathway. Although it is not alive, it has either DNA or RNA as its genetic material, and that material is housed in a protective protein coat. These chemical entities cause a wide range of diseases in people and animals. One particular type of virus, the bacteriophage, even infects bacteria.

23

Your body has several means by which it can protect itself from them, included _______________ that engulf pathogens and __________, which are specialized proteins that help to ward off pathogens. Once your body produces __________against a particular pathogen, it can remember how to make them in case you are infected again. This is the principle behind a __________, which is one of the most effective means of protecting yourself against certain viruses.

Your body has several means by which it can protect itself from them, included phagocytic cells that engulf pathogens and antibodies, which are specialized proteins that help to ward off pathogens. Once your body produces antibodies against a particular pathogen, it can remember how to make them in case you are infected again. This is the principle behind a vaccine, which is one of the most effective means of protecting yourself against certain viruses.

24

Since animal cells have __________ pairs of __________, we know genes come in _____, with one ____ on each __________ chromosome. Each gene that makes up one of these pairs is called an ____.

Since animal cells have homologous pairs of chromosomes, we know genes come in pairs, with one gene on each homologous chromosome. Each gene that makes up one of these pairs is called an allele.

25

Gregor Mendel’s life story shows what can happen when a person has a true desire to ______. His sacrifices for his ___________ allowed him to unlock one of the deep ___________ of God’s creation. Mendel’s story also shows that when you ______, you should not give up. Finally, his willingness to put all of that away in order to defend the __________ against an attack from the ________________ shows that Mendel had the proper set of priorities.

Gregor Mendel’s life story shows what can happen when a person has a true desire to learn. His sacrifices for his education allowed him to unlock one of the deep mysteries of God’s creation. Mendel’s story also shows that when you fail, you should not give up. Finally, his willingness to put all of that away in order to defend the faith against an attack from the government shows that Mendel had the proper set of priorities.

26

The __________ of an organism is essentially a list of its alleles. The ___________ of an organism is the observable expression of those alleles.

The genotype of an organism is essentially a list of its alleles. The phenotype of an organism is the observable expression of those alleles.

27

Mendel’s principles in updated terminology:

1. _____________________________________________________________________

2. _____________________________________________________________________

3. _____________________________________________________________________

4. _____________________________________________________________________

Mendel’s principles in updated terminology:

1. The traits of an organism are determined by its genes.

2. Each organism has two alleles that make up the genotype for a given trait.

3. In sexual reproduction, each parent contributes ONLY ONE of its alleles to its offspring.

4. In each genotype, there is a dominant allele. If it exists in an organism, the phenotype is determined by that allele.

28

A diagram that follows a particular phenotype through several generations is called a __________.

A diagram that follows a particular phenotype through several generations is called a pedigree.

29

When you cross two individuals concentrating on only one trait, you are performing a ___________ _____. A _______________ still deals with two individuals, but it concentrates on two separate traits.

When you cross two individuals concentrating on only one trait, you are performing a monohybrid cross. A dihybrid cross still deals with two individuals, but it concentrates on two separate traits.

30

Some traits are sex-linked, which means the alleles that define those traits are found on the _______ ___________ rather than the _________________.

Some traits are sex-linked, which means the alleles that define those traits are found on the sex chromosomes rather than the autosomes.