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Flashcards in 7-8 Deck (43)
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1

The science that studies how characteristics get passed from parent to offspring

Genetics

2

The general guideline of traits determined by a person’s DNA

Genetic factors

3

Those “nonbiological” factors that are involved in a person’s surroundings
such as the nature of the person’s parents, the person’s friends, and the person’s behavioral choices

Environmental factors

4

The factors in a person’s life that are determined by the quality of his or her relationship with God

Spiritual factors

5

A section of DNA that codes for the production of a protein or a portion of protein, thereby causing a trait

Gene

6

The RNA that performs transcription

Messenger RNA

7

A three-nucleotide base sequence on tRNA

Anticodon

8

A sequence of three nucleotide bases on mRNA that refers to a specific type of amino acid

Codon

9

DNA coiled around and supported by proteins, found in the nucleus of the cell

Chromosome

10

A process of asexual reproduction in eukaryotic cells

Mitosis

11

The time interval between cellular reproduction

Interphase

12

The region that joins two sister chromatids

Centromere

13

A cell ready to begin reproduction, containing duplicated DNA and centrioles

Mother cell

14

The figure produced when the chromosomes of a species during metaphase are
arranged according to their homologous pairs

Karyotype

15

A cell with chromosomes that come in homologous pairs

Diploid cell

16

A cell that has only one representative of each chromosome pair

Haploid cell

17

The total number of chromosomes in a diploid cell

Diploid number (2n)

18

The number of homologous pairs in a diploid cell

Haploid number (n)

19

The process by which a diploid (2n) cell forms gametes (n)

Meiosis

20

Haploid cells (n) produced by diploid cells (2n) for the purpose of sexual reproduction

Gametes

21

A non-cellular infectious agent that has two characteristics:
(1) It has genetic material (RNA or DNA) inside a protective protein coat.
(2) It cannot reproduce on its own.

Virus

22

Specialized proteins that aid in destroying infectious agents

Antibodies

23

A weakened or inactive version of a pathogen that stimulates the body’s production of antibodies which can aid in destroying the pathogen

Vaccine

24

If an organism has a certain characteristic that is always passed on to its offspring, we say that this organism bred true with respect to that characteristic.

True breeding

25

One of a pair of genes that occupies the same position on homologous chromosomes

Allele

26

Two-letter set that represents the alleles an organism possesses for a certain trait

Genotype

27

The observable expression of an organism’s genes

Phenotype

28

A genotype in which both alleles are identical

Homozygous genotype

29

A genotype with two different alleles

Heterozygous genotype

30

An allele that will determine phenotype if just one is present in the genotype

Dominant allele