8. Human Microbiome Flashcards Preview

BDS2 BAMS Immunology > 8. Human Microbiome > Flashcards

Flashcards in 8. Human Microbiome Deck (12)
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1

Definition and types of microbes

Tiny living organisms
Bacteria, fungi, protozoa, viruses

2

Definition of microbiome

Collectively, all the microbes in the human body

3

Definition of biofilm

A community of microbes that live together on a surface (regional microbiome)

4

How resident flora is acquired (2)

From delivery
From feeding

5

Benefits of normal flora (5)

Synthesise and excrete vitamins
Prevent colonisation by pathogens
May antagonise other bacteria
Stimulate development of certain tissues
Stimulate production of cross-reactive antibodies

6

A healthy microbial community is essential; mice raised in a germ-free environmental display (5)

Decreased nutrient absorption
Less developed intestines
Vitamin deficiency
Underdeveloped immune systems
Heightened sensitivity to pathogens

7

What oral features prevent may microbiological species from growing (4)

Saliva
pH
Temperature
Immune system

8

Bacteria in clogged pores (3)

P. acnes
S. epidermis
S. aureus

9

Major barriers for microbes entering the gut (5)

Low pH
Saliva and bile
Immune system
Finding a place to attach to the intestinal wall
Surviving a widely varied diet

10

Major barriers for microbes in the gut (2)

Gut flora performs regular tests of digestion, vitamin production, etc.
Gene transfer between myriad of species in the gut can generate new combinations of drug-resistant superbugs

11

Role of antibiotics

Kill infectious bacteria but can also disrupt natural flora and can result in yeast infections and digestive problems

12

What can gut flora modify

Some drugs (chemotherapeutics) during metabolism, causing many side effects (upset stomach)