9. Environmental Transmission Flashcards Preview

BDS2 BAMS Immunology > 9. Environmental Transmission > Flashcards

Flashcards in 9. Environmental Transmission Deck (23)
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1

Risk from equipment and the environment (4)

High risk (critical)
Medium risk (semi-critical)
Low risk (non-critical)
Minimal risk

2

Definition of high risk equipment

Items in contact with normally sterile body sites

3

Definition of medium risk equipment

Items in contact with intact mucous membranes

4

Definition of low risk equipment (2)

Items in contact with intact skin
Cleaned/chemically disinfected

5

Definition of minimal risk equipment (2)

Items not normally in contact with intact skin
Cleaned (chemically disinfected in risk assessed circumstances)

6

Types of non-critical environmental surfaces (2)

Housekeeping surfaces
Clinical contact surfaces

7

Features of housekeeping surfaces (2)

Not directly touched during dental treatment
Carry the lowest risk of disease transmission

8

Features of clinical contact surfaces (2)

Contaminated from patient materials either by direct spray or spatter generated during dental procedures
Contaminated by contact with gloved hand of dental healthcare professional

9

Influenza surface survival time (2)

Steel/plastic - 24-48hrs
Cloth, paper tissue - 8-12hrs

10

Influenza transmission (3)

Steel to hands over 24hrs
Paper tissue to hands for 15mins
Viruses survives 5mins on hands

11

Breaking the chain of infection from surfaces - reservoir

Surface design, surface material, cleaning, preventing recontamination, disinfectant/detergent

12

Breaking the chain of infection from surfaces - portal of exit

Aerosol control

13

Breaking the chain of infection from surfaces - mode of transmission

Hands, fomites

14

Breaking the chain of infection from surfaces - portal of entry

PPE

15

Breaking the chain of infection from surfaces - susceptible host

Vaccinations

16

Common issues with surface cleaning (3)

Body fluid forms surface films (facilitates pathogen attachment)
Visual assessment of cleanliness (poor measure of invisible soiling)
Cleaning process - potential to re-contaminate surfaces

17

Definition of detergent (2)

Group of synthetic organic water-soluble agents
Have wetting agent, emulsifying and soil holding properties

18

Definition of disinfection

Process for the removal or destruction of microbes not usually including bacterial spores

19

Features of high-level disinfectants

Kill all microbes (including mycobacteria) but not large numbers of bacterial spores
Usually require long contact time (hrs)

20

Features of low-level disinfectants

Kill most vegetative bacteria, some fungi and some viruses
Practical period of time (<10mins)

21

Portal of exit - aerosol control (2)

High volume aspiration
Rubber dam

22

Portal of entry

PPE

23

Definition of cleaning

Physical removal of contamination