9/16/12 a Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 9/16/12 a Deck (27):
0

What pharmalogical agent can be used to treat carcinoid syndrome prior to surgery or if disease is disseminated?

Octreotide

2

What is octreotide? What does it do?

Somatostatin analog; inhibits the release of many hormones, including gastrin, CCK, glucagon, growth hormone, insulin, secretin, pancreatic polypeptide, TSH, and VIP.

3

How does octreotide combat the Sx of carcinoid syndrome?

slows GI secretions and motility and causes peripheral vasoconstriction

4

What othe conditions are treated w/ octreotide?

Gigantism/acromegaly, VIPoma, and thyrotropinoma

5

Where are carcinoid tumors most commonly found? What are the Sx of tumors in this location?

midgut; no Sx b/c products metabolized by liver before entering systemic circulation

6

What is finasteride? What is it used for?

5-α-reductase inhibitor (prevents production of DHT; BPH

7

What is flutamide? Use?

competitive androgen antagonist; prostate cancer

8

What is the target of ondansetron?

inhibits 5-HT3 receptors; also inhibits stimulation by vagus n.

9

What two conditions could cause jugular venous distention, hypotension, and tachycardia?

cardiac tamponade or tension pneumothorax

10

Pt presetns w/ Sx of severe rheumatoid arthritis for past 6 mos. What drugs would you give her for immediate relief? For long-term tx?

Corticosteroids (or NSAIDs); MTX

11

What is the classic triad of congenital birth defects d/t rubella?

Cataracts, sensorineural deafness, and PDA.

12

How do we prophylax congenital rubella?

Live attenuated vaccine for women of childbearing age

13

What kind of vaccine are used for HAV and rabies?

Killed

14

What type of vaccine is used for MMR?

live, attenuated

15

How does enfuvurtide tx HIV infection?

prevents fusion

16

What is the main difference between the central chemoreceptors of the medulla and the peripheral chemoreceptors of the aortic and carotid bodies?

central respond to hypercapnia, peripheral to hypoxia

17

What are pulmonary C fibers?

stretch receptors that determine the length of inspiration and expiration

18

Budding yeast that forms germ tubes (hyphae) at 37 degrees.

Candida albicans

19

Which vasculitis is commonly associated w/ liver necrosis? Why?

Polyarteritis nodosa; viral hepatitis

20

What is the tx for giant cell arteritis?

prednisone

21

How are both metronidazole and oral contraceptives metabolized?

Hepatic CYP450

22

What does a positive straight leg raise test indicate?

sciatica, esp. by intervertebral disk herniation

23

What is the level of the sciatic nerve roots?

L4-S3

24

Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is associated with what tumor?

thymoma

25

Pure red cell aplasia is associated with what infection?

Parvovirus B19

26

Cilostazol is used to treat intermittent claudication. What is its mech and 2 main effects?

phosphodiesterase inhibitor; prevents plt aggregation and causes vasodilation

27

Pts w/ PCOS have persistently elevated levels of which 3 hormones?

LH, Estrogens, and Androgens