8/20/12 Flashcards Preview

USMLE World > 8/20/12 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 8/20/12 Deck (18):
0

What does a positive VDRL test in a lupus pt generally indicate?

APLA (+)

2

What is APLA's effect on coagulability?

causes hypercoaulable state.

3

What two hormones are commonly released ectopically by small cell carcinoma of the lung?

ADH and ACTH

4

How would blood chemistry change as a result of SIADH? Urine?

Blood: hyponatremia, low osmolality
Urine: high osmolality (concentrated)

5

What is the mechanism by which SIADH causes hyponatremia?

Normal to increased blood volume suppresses the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone axis and prevents aldo from conserving Na+.

6

What is the antidote for heparin overdose?

Protamine sulfate

7

Which defect is the major determining factor in the degree of cyanosis in Tetralogy of Fallot?

degree of pulmonic stenosis

8

Late complement deficiencies lead to recurrent infections with _______.

Neisseria

9

Which drugs are methylxanthines?

the "-phyllines", e.g. theophylline, aminophylline

10

What is the mechanism of action of methylxanthines in asthma tx?

1. phosphodiesterase inhibition increases cAMP in smooth muscle
2. they block adenosine receptors

11

Which diuretics increase calcium excretion?

Furosemide (loop diuretics) and acetazolamide (inhibits sodium and calcum reabsorption at the proximal tubule)

12

Dislocation of the shoulder is most likely to damage which nerve? Which 2 muscles might be weakened?

Axillary n. - deltoid and teres minor mm.

13

Which 2 nerves innervate all of the intrinsic mm. of the hand?

median and ulnar nn.

14

"Waiter's tip" results from injury to which nerve roots?

C5-6 (Erb's Palsy)

15

left-sided varicocele + flank pain + hematuria =

left renal vein occlusion by thrombus or malignant tumor

16

How can nephrotic syndrome lead to thrombosis?

loss of anti-coagulant factors like antithrombin III

17

Which is more likly to progress to colon carcinoma, a pedunculated or a sessile polyp? Tubular or villous histology?

sessile, villous

18

Which 2 cancers most typically release PTHrP?

Squamous cell lung carc., breast carc.