Flashcards in 8/19/12 Deck (28):
Hemolytic anemia + hypercoagulability + decreased blood counts =
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria
What kind of enzymes require biotin?
What is thought to be the etiology of narcolepsy?
lack of orexin (hypocretin), a stimulatory neurotransmitter involved in wakefulness (suppressing REM sleep).
What is the first line treatment for narcolepsy? Second line?
modafinil (provigil); amphetamines
What happens to the embryonic vitelline veins after birth?
They become the hepatic portal system.
What happens to the embryonic umbilical vv. after birth?
They degenerate; become ligaments.
What happens to the embryonic cardinal vv. after birth?
They become the systemic veins.
Isoniazid is structurally similar to what vitamin?
HGPRT, deficient in Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome, is part of the _______ pathway.
What is enoxaparin?
What does enoxaparin bind and inactivate?
What does unfractionated heparin bind and inactivate?
Factor Xa AND thrombin (by forming a ternary complex w/ it and anti-thrombin).
What is fondaparinux?
a Factor Xa inhibitor
Formula for number needed to treat?
1/ Absolute Risk Reduction (ARR)
Formula for Absolute Risk Reduction (ARR)?
risk in placebo group - risk in tx group
If 25/100 die of disease X w/ placebo and 1/60 die of disease X with drug Y, what is the number needed to treat w/ drug Y vs. placebo?
1/(25/100 - 1/60) = 4.3 ~ 5
Which diuretic will cause Ca++ retention and may be useful in preventing osteoporosis?
Aside from osteoporosis prevention, what is another fortuitous side effect of increased Ca++ absorption in certain diuretics?
decreased renal stone formation
What two muscles are present in the inner ear? What are each of their functions?
tensor tympani; stapedius. Both dampen loud sounds, the tensor tympani mainly chewing, and the stapedius mainly one's own voice.
Which cranial nerves innervates the 2 muscles of the inner ear? Which muscle does each inervate?
tensor tympani - V3
stapedius - facial
Why might a person with Bell's palsy experience hyperacusis?
Paralysis of CN VII --> stapedius m.
What are the two anti-inflammatory cytokines?
IL-10 and TgF-β
What susbstance regulates the closure of K+ channels in pancreatic β-cells?
Briefly describe the mechanism by which increased blood glucose causes the release of insulin from the pancreatic beta cell.
Glucose enters beta cell thru GLUT-2 and undergoes glycolysis. ATP produced by this process binds to KATP regulatory subunit of K+ channel to close it and depolarize the cell. Insulin is then released.
What is the mech and effect of the alpha toxin of C. perfringens?
Alpha toxin, aka phospholipase C or lecithinase, cleaves phospholipids causing hemolysis and tissue necrosis.
What is released from the pancreas as a result of stimulation by secretin?
What does CCK cause to be released from the pancreas? What else does it cause the secretion of?
pancreatic enzymes and bile from the gallbladder