9/16 Questions Exam 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 9/16 Questions Exam 2 Deck (27):
1

What segmental levels form the cervical curve?

C2-T1

2

What segmental levels form the lumbar curve?

T12 to L5

3

What is the earliest time of appearance of the cervical curve?

3rd fetal month

4

What is the traditional time of appearance of the cervical curve said to be?

during the last trimester in utero

5

What is the time during which the adult cervical curve is said to appear?

within the first year after birth

6

What developmental events are indicated in the formation of the adult cervical curve?

1. centers for vision and equilibrium will appear in the brain
2. musculature attaching the skull, cervical region, and upper thorax together develop
3. the head is held upright
4. the intervertebral disc height becomes greater anterior than posterior

7

At what age will the infant begin to hold the head erect?

usually between the 3rd and 4th month after birth

8

What is the name given to the integration of visual and motor pathways associated with holding the head erect?

the righting reflex

9

What is the location for the apex of the cervical curve?

typically between C4 and C5

10

What is the location for the cervical kyphosis?

between occiput and C1

11

What is the vertebral relationship between the cervical curve and the cervical enlargement?

cervical curve C2-T1; cervical enlargement C3-T1

12

What is the time of appearance of the lumbar curve?

between 12 and 18 months after birth

13

What infant activities are associated with the developmental of the lumbar curve?

crawling and walking

14

What developmental events are indicated in the formation of the adult lumbar curve?

1. crawling will cause the abdomen to put tension on the lumbar region and pulls it forward
2. muscle development is promoted to compensate for the swayback of the lumbars
3. intervertebral disc height will become greater anterior compared to posterior
4. walking will further promote muscle and intervertebral disc development

15

Which sense is a requirement for holding the head erect, standing, sitting, and walking?

vision

16

What is the gender bias associated with lumbar curve convexity?

females have a greater convexity of the lumbar curve

17

What is the vertebral relationship between the lumbar curve and the lumbar enlargement?

lumbar curve T12-L5; lumbar enlargement T9-T12

18

What is the time of appearance of the lateral curves?

they appear after 6 years old

19

What is the relationship between curve direction and handedness?

a right handed person has a high probability for a right thoracic, left lumbar curve combination

20

What names are given to conditions associated with abnormal curves of the vertebral column?

lordosis, kyphosis, scoliosis

21

What is the definition of lordosis?

a forward bending condition

22

What is the definition of kyphosis?

a humpback or hunchback condition

23

What is the definition of scoliosis?

a warped or crooked condition

24

What are the curve classifications for military neck?

a kyphosis or hypolordotic curve

25

What are the curve classifications for humpback or hunchback?

a kyphosis or hyperkyphotic curve

26

What are the curve classifications for swayback?

a lordosis or hyperlordotic curve

27

What are the names of the anterior curves, secondary curves, and compensatory curves?

cervical curve and lumbar curve