Flashcards in 9/16 Questions Exam 2 Deck (27)
What segmental levels form the cervical curve?
What segmental levels form the lumbar curve?
T12 to L5
What is the earliest time of appearance of the cervical curve?
3rd fetal month
What is the traditional time of appearance of the cervical curve said to be?
during the last trimester in utero
What is the time during which the adult cervical curve is said to appear?
within the first year after birth
What developmental events are indicated in the formation of the adult cervical curve?
1. centers for vision and equilibrium will appear in the brain
2. musculature attaching the skull, cervical region, and upper thorax together develop
3. the head is held upright
4. the intervertebral disc height becomes greater anterior than posterior
At what age will the infant begin to hold the head erect?
usually between the 3rd and 4th month after birth
What is the name given to the integration of visual and motor pathways associated with holding the head erect?
the righting reflex
What is the location for the apex of the cervical curve?
typically between C4 and C5
What is the location for the cervical kyphosis?
between occiput and C1
What is the vertebral relationship between the cervical curve and the cervical enlargement?
cervical curve C2-T1; cervical enlargement C3-T1
What is the time of appearance of the lumbar curve?
between 12 and 18 months after birth
What infant activities are associated with the developmental of the lumbar curve?
crawling and walking
What developmental events are indicated in the formation of the adult lumbar curve?
1. crawling will cause the abdomen to put tension on the lumbar region and pulls it forward
2. muscle development is promoted to compensate for the swayback of the lumbars
3. intervertebral disc height will become greater anterior compared to posterior
4. walking will further promote muscle and intervertebral disc development
Which sense is a requirement for holding the head erect, standing, sitting, and walking?
What is the gender bias associated with lumbar curve convexity?
females have a greater convexity of the lumbar curve
What is the vertebral relationship between the lumbar curve and the lumbar enlargement?
lumbar curve T12-L5; lumbar enlargement T9-T12
What is the time of appearance of the lateral curves?
they appear after 6 years old
What is the relationship between curve direction and handedness?
a right handed person has a high probability for a right thoracic, left lumbar curve combination
What names are given to conditions associated with abnormal curves of the vertebral column?
lordosis, kyphosis, scoliosis
What is the definition of lordosis?
a forward bending condition
What is the definition of kyphosis?
a humpback or hunchback condition
What is the definition of scoliosis?
a warped or crooked condition
What are the curve classifications for military neck?
a kyphosis or hypolordotic curve
What are the curve classifications for humpback or hunchback?
a kyphosis or hyperkyphotic curve
What are the curve classifications for swayback?
a lordosis or hyperlordotic curve