A&P Exam 1 Flashcards Preview

Spring 2014 > A&P Exam 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in A&P Exam 1 Deck (68):
0

Primary functions:
Recover fluid & electrolytes
Store feces until they can be eliminated
Which part of gi tract?

Large intestine

1

What are the components of the large intestine?

Cecum, colon, rectum

2

Blind sac at ileocecal junction in carnivores
Large in hind gut fermenters

Cecum

3

Part of large intestine where some microbial digestion occurs in all species

Colon

4

What type of species?
Simple, tubular colon; poorly developed cecum

Carnivores

5

What species are hindgut fermenters?

Equidae, rabbits, most rodents (guinea pigs, chinchillas, rats)

6

What type of stimulation generally increases motility in the colon and increased mucus secretion in most species?

Parasympathetic nervous system

7

Terminal portion of the large intestine
Nervous system control of motility and secretions similar to colon
Numerous mucus-secreting glands lubricate & aid passage of contents
Sensory receptors detect stretching and stimulates defecation response
Capable of more expansion than colon

Rectum

8

Composed of internal and external muscular sphincters

Anus

9

The internal anal sphincter is under what type of nervous system control?

Autonomic (involuntary)

10

This type of nervous stimulation causes relaxation of the internal anal sphincter

Parasympathetic

11

External anal sphincter is under what type of control?

Voluntary

12

What receptors increase the sense or need for defecation?

Anal mucosal receptors

13

Largest gland in the body
Considered a glad because it produces and excretes bile

Liver

14

Whatever term refers to liver?

Hepatic

15

The liver is divided into several lobes called:

L lateral, l medial, quadrate, r medial, r lateral, caudate

16

Functions of what?
Removes toxins, infectious agents, etc that enter the body through the wall of the gi tract
Stores and metabolizes nutrients absorbed from the gi tract
Produce bile
Synthesize albumin and other proteins
Gluconeogenesis

Liver

17

Blood vessel system that transports blood capillaries in the intestines to capillaries in the liver called hepatic sinusoids

Hepatic portal system

18

Capillaries in the live that fill with blood

Hepatic sinusoids

19

Blood leaves the liver through what vein and then enters the right atrium

Caudal vena cava

20

What types of nutrients are absorbed through the gi tract and are stored in the liver?

Glucose, amino acids, some vitamins minerals

21

What 3 contents is bile made of?

Bile acids, cholesterol, bilirubin

22

These are critical for digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine
In bile

Bile acids

23

Excessive hemolysis, impaired liver function, and bile duct obstruction can cause what?

Increased bilirubin

24

Bile is stored in what

Gallbladder

25

Stimulation by what causes gallbladder contraction which forces bile down common bile duct and into the duodenum

Cholecystokinin (CCK)

26

What 2 species do not have a gallbladder?

Horses and rats, continuously secrete bile into duodenum

27

Most bile acids are reabsorbed in the ileum where they enter portal circulation.
Therefore, blood levels of bile acids should be

Very low

28

Decreased functional hepatic mass, abnormalities of portal circulation (ports systemic liver shunt), and choke static disease (stasis of the gallbladder) cause bile acid concentrations to

Increase

29

Stasis of the gallbladder

Cholestatic disease

30

Liver synthesizes important blood proteins such as this one.
Maintains proper fluid balance in the blood

Albumin

31

What type of levels of albumin cause fluid to leak out of the capillaries resulting in fluid moving into the tissues or body cavities

Decreased albumin

32

Fluid in the tissues

Edema

33

Fluid in a cavity

Effusion

34

Glucose absorbed from gi tract may be stored in the liver as glycogen in a process called

Glycogenesis

35

Glucose stored in the liver is in what form

Glycogen

36

If body is in need of glucose, glycogen is broken down by the liver in a process called

Glycogenolysis

37

Glucose can also be made in the liver from amino acids through a process called

Gluconeogenesis

38

Both and endocrine and exocrine gland

Pancreas

39

The pancreas secretes these 3 enzymes through the pancreatic duct into the small intestine

Amylase
Lipase
Proteases (trypsin)

40

What enzyme helps with carbohydrate digestion?

Amylase

41

What enzyme aids in fat digestion

Lipase

42

What enzyme aids in protein digestion

Proteases (trypsin)

43

The pancreas also secretes this into the duodenum to help neutralize the acidity of contents and maintains the pH in the duodenum needed for proper enzyme function

Bicarbonate

44

These functions are indicative of what organ and which function of the organ?
Beta cells produce insulin which moves glucose from blood to tissues (diabetes mellitus, insulinoma)
Alpha cells produce glucagon which stimulates the liver to perform glyconeogenesis or gluconeogenesis.

Endocrine pancreas

45

How does ruminant stomach differ from monogastrics?

1 true stomach and 3 forestomachs, adapted to digesting plants

46

The process of swallowing food, regurgitating it to on it some more before swallowing it again

Rumination

47

Smallest, most cranial compartment of the forestomach compartments
Muscular wall is continuous with the rumen and the 2 contract in a coordinated manner
Separated from rumen by the ruminoreticular fold

Reticulum

48

Common term for bovine traumatic reticuloperitonitis
Usually caused by ingestion of sharp metallic objects that settle in the reticulum, and can irritate or even perforate its lining
Can even lead to pericarditis

Hardware disease

49

Prevention of hardware disease?

Place magnet in stomach

50

Large fermentative vat
Largest forestomach
Series of muscular sacs partially separated from one another by long muscular folds of rumen wall called pillars

Rumen

51

Chemical splitting of complex organic compounds into relatively simple substances

Fermentation

52

Series of muscular sacs partially separated from one another by long muscular folds of rumen wall called

Pillars

53

Reticuloruminal contractions allow for these 3 things

Mixing and stirring of contents
Regurgitation
Eructation

54

Rumen motility is controlled by the

Parasympathetic nervous system

55

Rumen pH, presence of volatile fatty acids, consistency of ingesta in the rumen, stretch receptors, and feedback from the brain stem and other parts of the gi tract determine what

Rte and strength of contraction

56

Enzymes produced by the glands in monogastric animals cannot digest what

Cellulose and pectin in the cell wall of plants

57

Microbial proteases do what

Break down protein into peptides

58

Rumen bacterial surfaces have cellulose enzymes that

Convert cellulose into simple sugars

59

Simple sugars and peptides are absorbed by the microbes and converted to

Volatile fatty acids (VFAs)

60

Some peptides are converted to ammonia and used by the microbe to create their own

Amino acids and proteins

61

VFAs are absorbed into the bloodstream
Liver converts VFAs into

Glucose, adipose tissue, milk fat and other components

62

If a ruminant isn't eating, the microbes eventually die and aren't there to digest food when they start to eat again. Treatment?

Transfaunation

63

Reticulorumen contractions move ingesta and microbes in this forestomach
Muscular organ with many muscular folds
Breaks food particles down further
Absorbs any remaining VFAs
Removes bicarbonate ions so they don't interfere with the acid pH of the abomasum
Absorbs some water from the ingesta

Omasum

64

True stomach, functions same as a monogastric stomach
Only compartment with glandular lining
HCl and digestive enzymes, needed for breakdown of feeds, are secreted into abomasum
Low pH facilitates initial protein breakdown. And kills bacteria which have spilled over from the rumen
Carbs are digested

Abomasum

65

Newborn ruminant's gi tract functions primarily as monogastric gi tract
Rumen and reticulum are nonfunctional at birth
This groove in the wall of reticulum conveys liquid from the esophagus directly to the omasum
Rate of development of the rumen and reticulum affected by type of diet (milk vs grain)

Reticular groove (esophageal groove)

66

Modifications of cecum and colon in nonruminant herbivores allow fermentative digestion in the

Hindgut

67

These are produced by microbes and absorbed from the cecum and colon for energy needs just as in the rumen of ruminants

VFAs