Repro exam 1 Flashcards Preview

Spring 2014 > Repro exam 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Repro exam 1 Deck (138):
0

What are the 2 major functions of the ovaries?

Produce ova
Produce sex hormones

1

In general, where are the ovaries located? Be specific

Variable due to species and pregnancy
Generally caudal to kidneys and close to tips of uterine horns

2

Extension of peritoneum that suspends the ovaries, uterine tubes, and uterus

Broad ligament

3

What are the 3 ligaments that suspend the ovary in the abdomen?

Mesovarium
Suspensory ligament
Proper ligament

4

Be able to state where the ovarian ligaments are located

Mesovarium: suspends ovaries from the abdominal wall below and to either side of the lumbar vertebrae
Proper ligament: runs from caudal pole of ovary to tip of adjacent uterine horn
Suspensory ligament: attaches ovary to the last 1 or 2 ribs

5

In which of the ovarian ligaments are found the ovarian artery and vein?

Mesovarium

6

Which of the ovarian ligaments must a surgeon typically stretch and break when performing an ovariohysterectomy in a dog or cat?

Mesovarium and suspensory ligament

7

What is significant about the ovarian bursa?

Sac-like cavity that can be surrounded by fat, making it hard to see the actual ovary

8

In what species is an ovarian bursa found?

Canine & feline

9

What species is an ovulation fossa found?

Equine

10

What is significant about an ovulation fossa?

Specialized structure where ovum leaves ovary during ovulation
Other species: ovum leaves ovary from random location

11

How do sow ovaries differ from other mammals?

They are lobulated

12

In what region of the ovary are the germinal epithelium cells and follicles located?

Cortex (outer portion)

13

Transient structure formed from cells lining ruptured follicles
Releases hormones

Corpus luteum

14

What function(s) does the uterine tube serve?

Captures ovum released during ovulation
Moves sperm from uterus toward ovum

15

Where does fertilization of the ovum typically occur?

Uterine tube

16

Proximal portion of the uterine tube, closest to the ovary
Covers ovary and catches ovum during ovulation

Infundibulum

17

Explain how an abdominal pregnancy could occur

Ovum could slip out in the space between the ovary and uterine tube into the abdomen
If fertilized in the abdomen, an abdominal pregnancy can occur

18

Fringe-like margin of the infundibulum
Creates current to sweep ovum into uterine tube

Fimbria

19

Portion of the broad ligament that suspends the uterine tube

Mesosalpinx

20

Describe the basic anatomy of the uterus

Uterine tubes empty into the horns of the uterus
Horns continue causally to form the body

21

Ligament that joins the caudal parts of the horns in the cow, causing the body to appear larger than it really is

Intercornual ligament

22

Non-glandular mushroom like projections from the inner surface of the ruminant uteri where fetal membranes attach

Caruncles

23

Why are caruncles significant?

Fetal membranes attach at these sites in ruminants

24

Muscle of the uterus

Myometrium

25

Portion of the broad ligament suspending the uterus

Mesometrium

26

Where is the cervix located?

Between the uterus and vagina

27

What determines if the cervix is opened or closed?

Hormonal status
Closed except during estrus (heat) and parturition

28

The cervix produces mucus, which at times can be thin, watery, and slippery, while at other times it can be thick & sticky. What causes the consistency to change?

Hormonal changes during the estrous cycle

29

What is the purpose of the mucus produced by the cervix?

Thin and slippery: acts as lubricant
Thick & sticky: plugs opening to cervical canal

30

In what species are annular folds found?

Bovine

31

What is the significance of annular folds?

Inner lining of cow's cervix arranged in series of circular rings, causing canal to have an almost spiral course

32

What does copulation mean

Act of breeding

33

What does parturition mean

Act of giving birth

34

What are the 2 major types of epithelial cells found in the vagina?

Stratified squamous
Stratified columnar

35

Area surrounding the projection of the cervix into the vagina

Fornix

36

What is significant about the fornix?

Fold of dorsal vaginal wall may hang over cervix, obscuring its opening

37

Portion of the Repro tract between the vagina and vulva
Has Repro and urinary functions

Vaginal vestibule

38

Blind pouch below urethral orifice in cows

Suburethral diverticulum

39

What is the significance about the vagina vestibule and Suburethral diverticulum?

Can mistake this area for the vagina during artificial insemination

40

Transverse fold of tissue that lies over the urethral orifice

Hymen

41

The top and bottom junction of the labia are known as

Commissures: dorsal and ventral

42

Located just within the ventral commissure
Same embryologic origin as penis

Clitoris

43

How is the clitoris similar to the penis?

2 crura, body, glans
Erectile tissue covered by stratified squamous epithelium
Rich in sensory nerve endings

44

Where is the perineum found?

Tissues between the anus and vulva

45

What is significant about the perineum?

Occasionally site of herniation of abdominal contents

46

Immediately deep to skin
Fibroelastic tissue mixed with smooth muscle cells
Passes between testes to contribute to formation of scrotal septum
Contracts in response to cold temps to hold testicles closer to body

Tunica dartos

47

What happens to spermatogenesis as the temp increases?

If temp rises above 80F, semen quality begins to decrease
When ambient temp >100F, scrotal cooling mechanism cannot keep testicle below normal body temp = spermatogenesis stops

48

What are the 2 major functions of the testicle?

Spermatogenesis
Production of testosterone

49

What occurs in the seminiferous tubules?

Spermatogenesis

50

These cells secrete testosterone
Located in the connective tissue between the seminiferous tubules

Interstitial cells of leydig

51

Closely adhered to testicle
Heavy fibrous capsule

Tunica albuginea

52

Tissue adhered to the tunica albuginea

Visceral vaginal tunic

53

Tissue between the areolar tissue and visceral vaginal tunic
Continuous with it

Parietal vaginal tunic

54

What type of castration?
Tunics incised
Testicular vessel, ductus deferens, and cremaster muscle are ligated directly or individually

Open castration

55

What type of castration?
Tunics not incised
Testicular vessels, ductus deferens, and cremaster muscle all ligated together in the spermatic cord

Closed castration

56

What are the advantages if a closed castration?

Reduced risk of hemorrhage from vaginal tunics
Rapid & routine techniques
Body cavity not opened: infection unlikely, decreased likelihood of seeding peritoneal cavity with neoplastic cells

57

What are the disadvantages of a closed castration?

Cannot pull spermatic cord as far out of the body during clamping/ligation process
Ligatures can be indirectly placed on testicular artery and vein

58

What occurs in the epididymis?

Spermatozoa maturation

59

What is the gubernaculum testis?

Band of connective tissue

60

What is the significance of the gubernaculum testis as it relates to the location of the testicles in the body?

Connects the tail of the epididymis to the scrotum

61

What structures make up the spermatic cord?

Cremaster muscle, ductus deferens, testicular vessels and nerves

62

This controls the location of the scrotum with regard to distance from the rest of the body

Cremaster muscle

63

Where is the inguinal ring found?

Space between the external and internal inguinal rings
Passage from abdominal cavity into the scrotum

64

What can happen if the inguinal canal is too large?

Inguinal hernia: loop of bowel can enter the scrotum

65

Are inguinal canals found only in males?

Yes

66

Where do testes originate in the embryo?

Just caudal to the kidneys

67

What does the term cryptorchid mean?

Hidden testes
Testicle fails to descend

68

In general, are bilateral cryptorchid males fertile?

No, usually sterile

69

Doe cryptorchidism affect the production of the male sex hormone?

No, production of testosterone is unaffected

70

In what species is cryptorchidism a dominant trait?

Stallion and boar

71

A cryptorchid testicle has a higher chance of developing...

Neoplasia (cancer)

72

The proper word for the material that leaves the male during copulation is....

Ejaculate

73

Part of the ductus deferens
Glandular enlargement in the terminal ductus deferens
Contributes fluid to semen

Ampullae

74

In what species is the ampullae found?

Well developed in: equine, bovine, ovine
Small in canine

75

Paired glands that empty along with the ductus deferens into the pelvis urethra

Vesicular glands/seminal vesicles

76

What species lack seminal vesicles?

Canine

77

About what percentage does the seminal vesicles contribute to the total volume of the discharge from the male?

70%

78

What is the purpose of fructose in the fluid contributed by the seminal vesicles?

Provides energy to the spermatozoa to power their movement in the female repro tract

79

Describe the appearance of the prostate gland in the dog

Unpaired, discrete, walnut shaped

80

What purpose does the fluid produced by the prostate appear to serve?

It has basic pH which appears to neutralize the acidic environment of the vagina

81

What are the symptoms of prostatic hypertrophy?

Gland swells as dog ages
Can occlude urethra, making urination difficult
Can press against the rectum, causing constipation like symptoms
Also susceptible to infection and neoplasia

82

What happens to the prostate gland if testosterone levels are reduced?

Atrophy

83

Small, paired glands caudal to the other accessory sex glands
Not present in dogs

Bulbourethral glands

84

What is the purpose of the product of the bulbourethral gland?

Produces clear, viscous fluid that flushes residual urine from urethra and lubricates urethra for passage of spermatozoa

85

Describe the basic process by which an erection occurs

Erection occurs when more blood enters the penis by way of the arterial supply than leaves through the veins
Increase in blood volume enlarges the penis and makes it turgid
Controlled by hormonal and nervous input

86

What is the sigmoid flexure?

S-shaped curve of the corpora penis

87

What species have a sigmoid flexure?

Bull, ram, boar

88

Bone in penis of canine that partially surrounds the urethra
Allows intromission before full erection occurs

Os penis

89

Describe some ways the os penis can cause difficulties for the male dog

Urethral stones may become lodged in this part of the urethra

90

What does intromission mean?

Inserting the penis into the vagina in sexual intercourse

91

Free extremity of the penis

Glandis penis

92

Free portion of the urethra that projects beyond the glans

Urethral process

93

In what species is the urethral process present?

Stallions and rams

94

In what species are epithelial spines found on the penis?

Felines

95

What is the purpose of the epithelial spines?

Stimulate female to ovulate

96

What species has a bulbis glandis?

Canines

97

What purpose does the bulbis glandis appear to serve?

Ties dogs together after mating
Seems to help with impregnating the bitch

98

What happens if the bulbis glandis becomes filled with blood prior to intromission?

Penis will not fit into vagina

99

Invaginate fold of skin surrounding the glans

Prepuce

100

When penis is unable to retract back into the prepuce

Paraphimosis

101

In what specific structure in the testicle does spermatogenesis take place?

Seminiferous tubules

102

Cells which will eventually produce spermatozoa or ova

Germinal epithelium

103

Diploid cells near periphery of the seminiferous tubules

Spermatogonium

104

Are primary spermatocytes diploid or haploid?

Diploid

105

Are secondary spermatocytes diploid or haploid?

Haploid

106

How many spermatogenesis result from each spermatogonium?

4, each is haploid

107

Where do spermatozoa become motile?

Epididymis

108

Where do spermatozoa complete the maturation process?

Female repro tract

109

This hormone released from the hypothalamus
Stimulates pituitary gland to produce and secrete increased amounts of FSH and LH

Gonadotropin releasing hormone, GnRH

110

Hormone secreted by anterior pituitary gland
Stimulates mammary production and synthesis of milk

Prolactin

111

Hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland
Stimulates uterine contractions and milk letdown

Oxytocin

112

Hormone released from pituitary gland
In female: causes follicles in ovary to develop and enlarge
In males: stimulates spermatogenesis along with testosterone and LH

Follicle stimulating hormone, FSH

113

FSH production is inhibited by what 2 hormones that are secreted by follicles in females

Estrogen and inhibin

114

Estrogen stimulates production of this hormone

Luteinizing hormone, LH

115

This hormone causes final maturation of follicle, ovulation, and formation of corpus luteum from remaining follicular tissue after release of the oocyte
Released from pituitary gland

Luteinizing hormone, LH

116

These 2 species are induced ovulators

Queen and rabbit (doe)

117

In males, LH is sometimes called this
Stimulates leydig cells to produce testosterone

Interstitial cell stimulating hormone, ICSH

118

A group of steroid hormones with similar physiologic activity
Produced by follicles and placenta
Estradiol is most important one

Estrogen

119

Estrogen causes what type of feedback on FSH

Negative

120

Estrogen causes what type of feedback on LH

Positive

121

This hormone causes female sexual behavior

Estrogen

122

Hormone secreted by follicles
Inhibits FSH secretion

Inhibin

123

A group of steroid hormones with similar physiologic activity
Progesterone is most important

Progestins

124

Hormone produced by mature corpus luteum on ovary and by placenta
Has negative feedback on LH
Maintains pregnancy
In most species, causes female to reject male

Progesterone

125

False pregnancy

Pseudocyesis

126

Uterus filled with pus, usually in older dogs

Pyometra

127

Group of hormone-like lipids
Released from cells throughout the body

Prostaglandins

128

This prostaglandin is produced by endometrium of non-pregnant uterus
May be stimulated by estrogen
Blocked by pregnancy

PGF 2alpha

129

Levels of this hormone decline after ovulation
Removes the negative feedback suppression of FSH production

Estrogen

130

Rising levels of FSH cause new wave of what?
Occurs even while corpus luteum from previous ovulation is still functional

Follicular development

131

PGF 2alpha levels rise in response to what type of estrogen levels
This causes luteolysis

Rising estrogen levels

132

Progesterone levels ...... With destruction of corpus luteum
This removes the negative feedback suppression of LH

Fall

133

LH levels rise rapidly due to low progesterone levels. This is called what?

LH surge

134

Follicles complete maturation and ovulation occurs when this hormone surges

LH

135

These 2 groups of hormones are secreted by the uterus and placenta as well as ovary during pregnancy

Estrogens and progestins

136

Oogenesis results in how many oocytes?

1

137

Oogenesis results in how many polar bodies?

3