Lab Tech Exam 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lab Tech Exam 3 Deck (121):
1

Cytology samples from ____ sites are characterized by the presence of WBC's, particularly neutrophils and macrophages.

inflammatory

2

Introduction of a needle into a body cavity or organ for the purpose of removing fluid.

Centesis

3

Taking a variety of shapes & forms; multiple morphologies

pleomorphism

4

Unless the samples are from a moist lesion, swabs must be moistened with ___ before samples are collected.

sterile saline

5

Multiple imprints from different layers of an external lesion is referred to as a ____ preparation.

Tzanch

6

To ensure adequate fixation of histology samples, slabs of tissue no more than ____ wide should be placed in fluid-tight jars containing formalin at approximately ___ times the specimen's volume.

1 cm
10X

7

The ___ ___, also called the needle spread technique, is ideal for the preparation of viscous samples.

starfish technique

8

Samples with low cellularity and small volume should be prepared with the ___ ____ technique.

line smear

9

Prepared cytology slides should remain in fixative for __-__ minutes before staining.

2-5

10

In fluid samples, total nucleated cell counts of greater than _____ is a common finding with inflammation.

5,000

11

Suppurative inflammation is characterized by the presence of greater than ___% of the total nucleated cell count.

85

12

____ appears as a nucleus that appears swollen, ragged nucleus without an intact nuclear membrane and with reduced staining intensity.

Karyolysis

13

____ represents slow cell death (aging) and refers to a small, condensed, dark nucleus.

Pyknosis

14

Hyperplasia with no criteria of malignancy present in the nucleus of the cells is described as

benign neoplasia

15

Cells that display at least 3 abnormal nuclear configurations are identified as

malignant

16

Epithelial cell tumors are also referred to as

carcinoma

17

When more than 15% of a cytology sample is composed of macrophages, the sample is classified as ____ or ____.

granulomatous or pyogranulomatous

18

A sample characterized by the presence of large numbers of cells with an eccentrically located nucleus and prominent perinuclear clear zone most likely indicates a

plasma cell tumor

19

Yeasts, squamous epithelial cells, and ____ organisms are commonly isolated from ear swabs and may not indicate pathology.

bacteria/microorganisms

20

In a normal lymph node, the predominant cell type is the

lymphocyte

21

Epithelial cells that are angular in appearance and have no nuclei or that contain a pyknotic nuclei are described as

superficial

22

Reactive lymph nodes contain predominantly small, mature lymphocytes as well as ____ __, lymphoblasts, and intermediate lymphocytes.

plasma cells

23

Plasma cells containing secretory vesicles of immunoglobulin are described as

occasional Mott cells

24

___ cells line the body cavities.

Endothelial

25

A fluid sample with a high fat content and large number of mature lymphocytes is described as

chylothorax

26

Normal peritoneal and pleural fluids have less than ___ nucleated cells/uL

10,000

27

The following are nuclear criteria of _____: macrokaryosis; increased nucleus:cytoplasm ratio; anisokaryosis; multinucleation; increased mitotic figures; abnormal mitosis - coarse chromatin pattern; nuclear molding; macronucleoli; angular nucleoli; anisonucleoliosis

malignancy

28

Sample with large cell size, round to caudate cell shape, usually high cellularity, clumps or clusters are common.

Epithelial

29

Sample with small to medium cell size; spindle to stellate cell shape; usually low cellularity; clumps or clusters uncommon.

mesenchymal

30

Sample with small-medium cell size; round cell shape; usually high cellularity except histiocytoma; clumps or clusters umcommon.

Discrete round cell

31

These are cell types that may be found in ____ cytology samples: parabasal epithelial, intermediate cells - small & large, superficial cells, anuclear superficial cells, RBCs, WBCs, bacteria, sperm, and squamous cells.

vaginal

32

These are evaluations that may be performed on ___ samples: volume of ejaculate; gross appearance; sperm motility; sperm concentration; live/dead sperm ratio; sperm morphology; other misc cells.

semen

33

fragmentation of a cell nucleus

karyorrhexis

34

describes tumors of epithelial cell origin

carcinoma

35

tumor arising from melanocytes of the skin or other organs

melanoma

36

used to describe a tumor or growth that is not malignant

benign

37

paracentesis of the abdomen

abdominocentesis

38

removal of fluid from the thoracic cavity

thoracocentesis

39

generic term to describe any growth; often used to describe a tumor, which may be malignant or benign

neoplasia

40

any cancer arising from the cells of connective tissue

sarcoma

41

an effusion characterized by low protein concentration and low total nucleated cell counts

transudate

42

act of puncturing a body cavity or organ with a hollow needle to draw out fluid

centesis

43

What type of effusion does this describe: large amt of fluid; clear, colorless, or red tinged; <1,500/uL of TNCC; mixture of monocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes, & mesothelial cells

transudate

44

What cell types are seen in exudate?

inflammatory: neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, & eosinophils

45

What color is exudate effusion?

turbid, white, slightly yellow

46

How much protein is in exudate? Less than or more than 3.0 g/dL?

More than

47

What cell types are found in modified transudate?

lymphocytes, nondegenerative neutrophils, mesothelial cells, macrophages, neoplastic cells

48

microscopic study of diseased tissues; compare cells to their neighbors

histopathology

49

The primary purpose of the cytology evaluation is to differentiate ____ and ____.

inflammation and neoplasia

50

What type of collection method should be used when imprints, scrapings, and aspirates cannot be made such as fistulous tracts and vaginal cytology.

Swab

51

What type of collection method should be used on external lesions on living animals, or tissues removed during sx or necropsy?

impression smears

52

What are 2 advantages of impression smears?

easy to collect
minimal restraint

53

What are 2 disadvantages of impression smears?

fewer cells than scrapings
greater amount of contamination

54

If a Dermatophilus congolensis infection is suspected, the ___ must also be imprinted.

underside of the scab

55

If the tissue is not blotted dry before impressions are made, the slides will usually contain only

blood/tissue fluid

56

Discrete cells, such as ___ cells and cells of __ __ __, exfoliate well with imprints.

inflammatory
round cell tumors

57

____ lesions generally do not exfoliate many cells; however, highly malignant ____ tumors may yield very cellular specimens.

Mesenchymal

58

This technique can be used to collect from masses in: lymph nodes, nodular lesions, and internal organs.

fine needle biopsy

59

What gauge of needle should be used for a fine needle biopsy?

21-25 ga.

60

What volume of syringe should be used for a fine needle biopsy?

3-20 ml

61

____ ___ may be preformed by passage of a catheter through an endotracheal tube in an anesthetized animal, through nasal passages, or through the skin & trachea.

Tracheal washes

62

This refers to the measures that must be included during each assay run to verify that the test is working properly.

Quality control

63

This is defined as the overall program that ensures that the final results reported by the lab are correct.

Quality Assurance

64

Means to determine the quality of the results generated by the lab. This is a challenge to the effectiveness of the QA & QC programs.

Quality Assessment

65

Can quality assessment be external or internal?

both

66

The known, accepted value of a quantifiable property

true value

67

the result of an individual's measurement of a quantifiable property

measured value

68

A sample batch is __-___ samples or less.

10-20

69

How well a measurement agrees with an accepted value.

accuracy

70

How well a series of measurements agree with each other.

precision

71

This is an ideal concept which cannot be achieved.

True value

72

The value approximating the true value, the difference between the two values is negligible.

Accepted true value

73

The discrepancy between the result of the measurement and the true (or accepted true value)

error

74

Avoidable error due to controllable variables in the measurement.

Systematic error

75

Unavoidable errors that are always present in any measurement. Impossible to eliminate.

Random errors

76

Standards used, calibration values, and values of physical constants. Source of error

input data required

77

An error which varies in an unpredictable manner, in magnitude and sign, when a large number of measurements of the same quantity are made under effectively identical conditions.

Random error

78

An error which, in the course of a number of measurements of the same value of a given quantity, remains constant when measurements are made under the same conditions, or varies according to a definite law when conditions change.

Systemic error

79

Purposes of necropsy

Establish cause of death
Verify a pre-mortem diagnosis
Establish the efficacy or lack of efficacy of TX prior to animal's death
Determine whether other animals may be at risk for infection or injury environmental hazards

80

Before beginning a necropsy, you should

Be sure client consent is in writing!
Verify patient ID (microchip/tattoo)
Include full identifying info regarding the client on the report form.
Provide complete history of events leading to the necropsy, including cause & time of death.

81

Prior to euthanasia, collect blood in a red top, purple top, and green top, approx ___ ml each if possible.

10

82

Euthanasia: use a method that will cause the least amount of ____ change, and not damage tissues of interest.

artifactual

83

Methods of euthanasia

gas chamber/induction mask
Parenteral injections: IV, IP, IC
Gunshot or captive bolt
Cervical dislocation
Electrocution
Exsanguinations
Pithing (slaughtering technique)

84

While necropsy is performed, describe and record all _____. Be specific in descriptions, without drawing conclusions.

abnormalities

85

This should be done at what point during the necropsy: report in writing, all the findings of necropsy; tentative conclusions may be made at end of report.

After necropsy is completed

86

Never ____ an animal destined for necropsy because it destroys some tissues.

freeze

87

These are descriptions of what: well-lit, easy to disinfect, have adequate drainage for fluids & water, large enough to be well-ventilated, apart from surgical & patient areas.

necropsy area

88

PPE should include

waterproof scrubs or aprons
rubber boots
gloves
goggles & surgical masks

89

Most of the instruments you use will not

surgical-grade

90

The large shears are for

cutting ribs

91

What instruments should be used for a small animal necropsy?

array of scissors
scalpel w/blade
forceps
hemostats
syringes

92

String is used for what in necropsy?

closing off sections of intestine (prevent mixing soft tissue specimens with GI contents)

93

Formalin fixation is usually conplete within ___ hours. Large brains may take ___ hours.

24
48

94

A buffered formalin. Most widely used fixative for preserving tissues.

10% formalin

95

A mixture of buffered formalin and formaldehyde. Best for larger tissues, or those that are thicker.

50% formalin

96

Tissues can be collected for analysis of

potential bacteria
viral infection
mycotic infection
mycoplasma infection

97

Before samples are collected for examination what should be done?

Diagnostic lab should be contacted for specific advice.

98

Always send several prepared slides to the lab, as well as the

remains of the sample

99

Where are we going to collect samples from?

primary site of disease
lymph nodes in area of primary site

100

Tissues for ___ ___ should be: collected aseptically, refrigerated in sterile container, or immersed in sterile 50% buffered glycol in sterile container, preserved by freezing.

virus isolation

101

Prime specimens for virus isolation include:

lung, liver, spleen, kidney & brain

102

Fresh, refrigerated tissue immersed in ____ ___ media is preferred method of tissue submission.

virus transport

103

These are samples to collect for what? Blood, urine, stomach contents, liver, kidney, fatty tissue, brain tissue (if not rabies suspect)

toxicology samples

104

Any animal suspected of rabies should be handled only with

full PPE.

105

Keep the head of the animals suspected of rabies

refrigerated.

106

There should always be complete ___ on the specimen containers.

labeling

107

Always handle tissues gently. Do not squeeze, stretch or ___ tissues.

rinse

108

Containers with formalin should be kept closed except when tissues are placed in them because formalin is a contact irritant and a

carcinogen

109

Tissues become rigid with fixation, so if there is a need to retain flatness of tissue, it can be placed on a piece of

cardboard before immersion

110

Sections from paired organs may be ___ ___ to distinguish them from each other

trimmed differently

111

In case of tumors, there is a way of ____ marking to allow the pathologist to determine cranial, caudal, right & left sides of the lesion.

color-coded

112

Critical tissues should be collected from

lung, myocardium, liver, spleen, pancreas, stomach, sm intestine, colon, lymph nodes, kidney, urinary bladder, endocrine organs, skeletal muscle, spinal cord

113

Before you begin the necropsy,

evaluate gross appearance of animal

114

The dissection should begin with examination of the

eye.

115

___ undergoes rapid decomposition after death.

Retina

116

Sampling ___ fluid can be particularly useful with some viral diseases, as well as with some neoplasias.

ocular

117

Attempt to aspirate fluid from where for cytology?

all major joints
thoracic & abdominal cavities

118

If there is ____, place in a sterile container.

effusion

119

If the fluid shows any hemolysis or blood products, put some in a tube with

anticoagulant - EDTA

120

Necropsy begins with animal in ___ ___ recumbency.

left lateral

121

Review necropsy instructions in McCurnin's and powerpoint p311

x