Flashcards in Lab Tech Exam 3 Deck (121):
Cytology samples from ____ sites are characterized by the presence of WBC's, particularly neutrophils and macrophages.
Introduction of a needle into a body cavity or organ for the purpose of removing fluid.
Taking a variety of shapes & forms; multiple morphologies
Unless the samples are from a moist lesion, swabs must be moistened with ___ before samples are collected.
Multiple imprints from different layers of an external lesion is referred to as a ____ preparation.
To ensure adequate fixation of histology samples, slabs of tissue no more than ____ wide should be placed in fluid-tight jars containing formalin at approximately ___ times the specimen's volume.
The ___ ___, also called the needle spread technique, is ideal for the preparation of viscous samples.
Samples with low cellularity and small volume should be prepared with the ___ ____ technique.
Prepared cytology slides should remain in fixative for __-__ minutes before staining.
In fluid samples, total nucleated cell counts of greater than _____ is a common finding with inflammation.
Suppurative inflammation is characterized by the presence of greater than ___% of the total nucleated cell count.
____ appears as a nucleus that appears swollen, ragged nucleus without an intact nuclear membrane and with reduced staining intensity.
____ represents slow cell death (aging) and refers to a small, condensed, dark nucleus.
Hyperplasia with no criteria of malignancy present in the nucleus of the cells is described as
Cells that display at least 3 abnormal nuclear configurations are identified as
Epithelial cell tumors are also referred to as
When more than 15% of a cytology sample is composed of macrophages, the sample is classified as ____ or ____.
granulomatous or pyogranulomatous
A sample characterized by the presence of large numbers of cells with an eccentrically located nucleus and prominent perinuclear clear zone most likely indicates a
plasma cell tumor
Yeasts, squamous epithelial cells, and ____ organisms are commonly isolated from ear swabs and may not indicate pathology.
In a normal lymph node, the predominant cell type is the
Epithelial cells that are angular in appearance and have no nuclei or that contain a pyknotic nuclei are described as
Reactive lymph nodes contain predominantly small, mature lymphocytes as well as ____ __, lymphoblasts, and intermediate lymphocytes.
Plasma cells containing secretory vesicles of immunoglobulin are described as
occasional Mott cells
___ cells line the body cavities.
A fluid sample with a high fat content and large number of mature lymphocytes is described as
Normal peritoneal and pleural fluids have less than ___ nucleated cells/uL
The following are nuclear criteria of _____: macrokaryosis; increased nucleus:cytoplasm ratio; anisokaryosis; multinucleation; increased mitotic figures; abnormal mitosis - coarse chromatin pattern; nuclear molding; macronucleoli; angular nucleoli; anisonucleoliosis
Sample with large cell size, round to caudate cell shape, usually high cellularity, clumps or clusters are common.
Sample with small to medium cell size; spindle to stellate cell shape; usually low cellularity; clumps or clusters uncommon.
Sample with small-medium cell size; round cell shape; usually high cellularity except histiocytoma; clumps or clusters umcommon.
Discrete round cell
These are cell types that may be found in ____ cytology samples: parabasal epithelial, intermediate cells - small & large, superficial cells, anuclear superficial cells, RBCs, WBCs, bacteria, sperm, and squamous cells.
These are evaluations that may be performed on ___ samples: volume of ejaculate; gross appearance; sperm motility; sperm concentration; live/dead sperm ratio; sperm morphology; other misc cells.
fragmentation of a cell nucleus
describes tumors of epithelial cell origin
tumor arising from melanocytes of the skin or other organs
used to describe a tumor or growth that is not malignant
paracentesis of the abdomen
removal of fluid from the thoracic cavity
generic term to describe any growth; often used to describe a tumor, which may be malignant or benign
any cancer arising from the cells of connective tissue
an effusion characterized by low protein concentration and low total nucleated cell counts
act of puncturing a body cavity or organ with a hollow needle to draw out fluid
What type of effusion does this describe: large amt of fluid; clear, colorless, or red tinged; <1,500/uL of TNCC; mixture of monocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes, & mesothelial cells
What cell types are seen in exudate?
inflammatory: neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, & eosinophils
What color is exudate effusion?
turbid, white, slightly yellow
How much protein is in exudate? Less than or more than 3.0 g/dL?
What cell types are found in modified transudate?
lymphocytes, nondegenerative neutrophils, mesothelial cells, macrophages, neoplastic cells
microscopic study of diseased tissues; compare cells to their neighbors
The primary purpose of the cytology evaluation is to differentiate ____ and ____.
inflammation and neoplasia
What type of collection method should be used when imprints, scrapings, and aspirates cannot be made such as fistulous tracts and vaginal cytology.
What type of collection method should be used on external lesions on living animals, or tissues removed during sx or necropsy?
What are 2 advantages of impression smears?
easy to collect
What are 2 disadvantages of impression smears?
fewer cells than scrapings
greater amount of contamination
If a Dermatophilus congolensis infection is suspected, the ___ must also be imprinted.
underside of the scab
If the tissue is not blotted dry before impressions are made, the slides will usually contain only
Discrete cells, such as ___ cells and cells of __ __ __, exfoliate well with imprints.
round cell tumors
____ lesions generally do not exfoliate many cells; however, highly malignant ____ tumors may yield very cellular specimens.
This technique can be used to collect from masses in: lymph nodes, nodular lesions, and internal organs.
fine needle biopsy
What gauge of needle should be used for a fine needle biopsy?
What volume of syringe should be used for a fine needle biopsy?
____ ___ may be preformed by passage of a catheter through an endotracheal tube in an anesthetized animal, through nasal passages, or through the skin & trachea.
This refers to the measures that must be included during each assay run to verify that the test is working properly.
This is defined as the overall program that ensures that the final results reported by the lab are correct.
Means to determine the quality of the results generated by the lab. This is a challenge to the effectiveness of the QA & QC programs.
Can quality assessment be external or internal?
The known, accepted value of a quantifiable property
the result of an individual's measurement of a quantifiable property
A sample batch is __-___ samples or less.
How well a measurement agrees with an accepted value.
How well a series of measurements agree with each other.
This is an ideal concept which cannot be achieved.
The value approximating the true value, the difference between the two values is negligible.
Accepted true value
The discrepancy between the result of the measurement and the true (or accepted true value)
Avoidable error due to controllable variables in the measurement.
Unavoidable errors that are always present in any measurement. Impossible to eliminate.
Standards used, calibration values, and values of physical constants. Source of error
input data required
An error which varies in an unpredictable manner, in magnitude and sign, when a large number of measurements of the same quantity are made under effectively identical conditions.
An error which, in the course of a number of measurements of the same value of a given quantity, remains constant when measurements are made under the same conditions, or varies according to a definite law when conditions change.
Purposes of necropsy
Establish cause of death
Verify a pre-mortem diagnosis
Establish the efficacy or lack of efficacy of TX prior to animal's death
Determine whether other animals may be at risk for infection or injury environmental hazards
Before beginning a necropsy, you should
Be sure client consent is in writing!
Verify patient ID (microchip/tattoo)
Include full identifying info regarding the client on the report form.
Provide complete history of events leading to the necropsy, including cause & time of death.
Prior to euthanasia, collect blood in a red top, purple top, and green top, approx ___ ml each if possible.
Euthanasia: use a method that will cause the least amount of ____ change, and not damage tissues of interest.
Methods of euthanasia
gas chamber/induction mask
Parenteral injections: IV, IP, IC
Gunshot or captive bolt
Pithing (slaughtering technique)
While necropsy is performed, describe and record all _____. Be specific in descriptions, without drawing conclusions.
This should be done at what point during the necropsy: report in writing, all the findings of necropsy; tentative conclusions may be made at end of report.
After necropsy is completed
Never ____ an animal destined for necropsy because it destroys some tissues.
These are descriptions of what: well-lit, easy to disinfect, have adequate drainage for fluids & water, large enough to be well-ventilated, apart from surgical & patient areas.
PPE should include
waterproof scrubs or aprons
goggles & surgical masks
Most of the instruments you use will not
The large shears are for
What instruments should be used for a small animal necropsy?
array of scissors
String is used for what in necropsy?
closing off sections of intestine (prevent mixing soft tissue specimens with GI contents)
Formalin fixation is usually conplete within ___ hours. Large brains may take ___ hours.
A buffered formalin. Most widely used fixative for preserving tissues.
A mixture of buffered formalin and formaldehyde. Best for larger tissues, or those that are thicker.
Tissues can be collected for analysis of
Before samples are collected for examination what should be done?
Diagnostic lab should be contacted for specific advice.
Always send several prepared slides to the lab, as well as the
remains of the sample
Where are we going to collect samples from?
primary site of disease
lymph nodes in area of primary site
Tissues for ___ ___ should be: collected aseptically, refrigerated in sterile container, or immersed in sterile 50% buffered glycol in sterile container, preserved by freezing.
Prime specimens for virus isolation include:
lung, liver, spleen, kidney & brain
Fresh, refrigerated tissue immersed in ____ ___ media is preferred method of tissue submission.
These are samples to collect for what? Blood, urine, stomach contents, liver, kidney, fatty tissue, brain tissue (if not rabies suspect)
Any animal suspected of rabies should be handled only with
Keep the head of the animals suspected of rabies
There should always be complete ___ on the specimen containers.
Always handle tissues gently. Do not squeeze, stretch or ___ tissues.
Containers with formalin should be kept closed except when tissues are placed in them because formalin is a contact irritant and a
Tissues become rigid with fixation, so if there is a need to retain flatness of tissue, it can be placed on a piece of
cardboard before immersion
Sections from paired organs may be ___ ___ to distinguish them from each other
In case of tumors, there is a way of ____ marking to allow the pathologist to determine cranial, caudal, right & left sides of the lesion.
Critical tissues should be collected from
lung, myocardium, liver, spleen, pancreas, stomach, sm intestine, colon, lymph nodes, kidney, urinary bladder, endocrine organs, skeletal muscle, spinal cord
Before you begin the necropsy,
evaluate gross appearance of animal
The dissection should begin with examination of the
___ undergoes rapid decomposition after death.
Sampling ___ fluid can be particularly useful with some viral diseases, as well as with some neoplasias.
Attempt to aspirate fluid from where for cytology?
all major joints
thoracic & abdominal cavities
If there is ____, place in a sterile container.
If the fluid shows any hemolysis or blood products, put some in a tube with
anticoagulant - EDTA
Necropsy begins with animal in ___ ___ recumbency.