A & P Final Flashcards Preview

Spring 2014 > A & P Final > Flashcards

Flashcards in A & P Final Deck (365):
1

What are the 4 orders in the Reptilia class?

Crocodylia, Squamata, Chelonia, Rhynocephalia

2

Alligators, caimans, and crocodiles are in which order?

Crocodylia

3

Snakes and lizards are in which order?

Squamata

4

Turtles, tortoises & terrapins are in which order?

Chelonia

5

These types of animals, including reptiles, are unable to generate body heat internally. Body temp depends on environmental temp. 2 exceptions: leatherback sea turtles & pythons

Ectotherms/Poikilotherms

6

Reptiles maintain body temps via _____ thermoregulation (basking, coiling).

behavioral

7

Reptiles' ability to thermoregulate depends on access to temperatures within the

preferred optimal temperature zone (POTZ)

8

This is the range of temperatures in which the animal can perform all necessary metabolic functions

preferred optimal temperature zone (POTZ)

9

Ectotherms regulate temp depending on

metabolic needs

10

Ectothermy allows many reptiles to survive on ___ amounts of food.

small

11

If temperatures are too ____, reptiles can suffer from digestive problems, immunosuppression, and other disorders.

low

12

If temps are too ___, reptiles are forced to maintain a high metabolic rate and may suffer from energy deficits.

high

13

Reptiles will undergo ____ or brumation when temps drop below POTZ.

hibernation

14

The epidermis of reptiles is made of distinct scales formed by a ___ of the epidermis and is relatively impermeable.

folding

15

This type of keratin on reptiles is soft, flexible, and found in the interscalar skin.

alpha keratin

16

This type of keratin on reptiles in rigid and found in scales.

beta keratin

17

The dermis of reptiles is dense connective tissue that contains blood & lymph vessels, nerves and

chromatophores.

18

The subcutaneous space in reptiles is _____, making SQ injections inadvisable.

limited

19

The process of shedding the skin is controlled by the

thyroid gland

20

Shed skin of reptiles is called

exuvia

21

The process of shedding the skin is called

ecdysis

22

An enzyme-containing ___ is secreted between old and new epidermal layers during ecdysis.

lymph

23

During ecdysis, skin color ___ and spectale opacifies.

dulls

24

The term for abnormal shedding of the skin is

dysecdysis

25

Causes of dysecdysis include (4)

low humidity, dehydration, underlying illness, lack of cage furniture

26

Tx for dysecdysis

proper husbandry, soaking

27

The iris of reptiles is made of skeletal muscle and is under ___ control.

Voluntary

28

Since the iris of reptiles is under voluntary control, ___ are not predictable.

PLR's

29

Snakes and some lizards have this clear, scale-like structure formed by the fusion of the upper and lower eyelids instead of eyelids.

Spectacle

30

The spectacle is ___ to topical medications

impermeable

31

Most reptiles have ____ developed extraocular muscles, with the exception of chameleons.

poorly

32

Chelonians have no ___ ___ so tears spill over the lid

nasolacrimal duct

33

Most reptiles (exceptions: snakes & crocodilians) have ____ bones which help the eye maintain its shape.

scleral

34

Crocodilians are the only reptiles that have a ____ which help them see better in the dark.

tapetum

35

This structure is found in tuataras and some lizards. It is a rudimentary retina & cornea with no iris, lids, or musculature. It may play a role in hormone production & thermoregulatory behavior.

Parietal eye

36

The parietal eye is connected to the pineal body via the

parietal nerve

37

The location of the heart varies in reptiles. For ____, the heart is on midline just caudal to the thoracic girdle and ventral to the lungs.

chelonians

38

The location of the heart varies in reptiles. For most ____ the heart is within the thoracic girdle.

lizards

39

The location of the heart varies in reptiles. For ____ and some lizards, the heart is more caudal in the coelomic cavity.

Crocodilians

40

The location of the heart varies in reptiles. For ____, the heart is usually at junction of first & second third of the body length but is fairly mobile.

snakes

41

The heart of most reptiles has ___ atria and __ ventricle.

2 atria
1 ventrile

42

There are 3 regions within the ventricle that are functionally separate. What are they?

Cavum venosum
Cavum arteriosum
Cavum pulmonale

43

In times of ___ ____, reptiles can shunt blood away from the lungs.

oxygen deprivation

44

____ are the only reptiles that possess a four-chambered heart. It is very different from birds and mammals.

Crocodilians

45

When the vagus nerve of lizards is suddenly stimulated, it sets off a chain of events within the body, most notably a rapid reduction of BP and HR. This is called

vasovagal reflex

46

The vasovagal reflex is triggered by applying gentle pressure to both

eyeballs

47

Mature reptilian RBCs are different from mammalian in what 2 ways?

nucleated, oval

48

The WBC in reptiles that is analogous to neutrophils.

heterophils.

49

Because heterophils do not possess peroxidase & acid phosphatase which break down necrotic material, reptiles produce ___ pus instead of liquid material.

caseous

50

What are the different blood collection sites of reptiles? (5)

ventral coccygeal vein
dorsal coccygeal vein
jugular
subcarapacial sinus
cardiac puncture

51

Reptiles are capable of surviving long periods without breathing due to their large pulmonary volume, efficient ___ metabolism, and cardiac shunting capabilities.

anaerobic

52

Respiration in reptiles is driven by ___ levels in blood, as compared to CO2 levels in mammals.

O2

53

Reptiles do not have an epiglottis, only a ___ in the rostral portion of the oral cavity.

glottis

54

Paired ___ cartilages border the glottal opening and open during respiration

arytenoid

55

The only vocalizations of reptiles are hissing, grunting, and bellowing. This is because they do not have

vocal cords

56

A glottal keel is present in some species of snakes. This increases

volume of vocalizations

57

Tracheal rings are ___ in chelonians and _____ in lizards and snakes.

complete - chelonians
incomplete - snakes & lizards

58

The ___ are analogous to alveoli in mammals. They are fixed structures (do not expand or contract) surrounded by capillaries.

faveoli

59

This lung type is a simple, saclike structure. The cranial portion is the site of gas exchange. The caudal portion is avascular and comparable to avian air sac. Snakes and some lizards have this lung type.

Unicameral

60

This lung type is present is chelonians, some lizards, and crocodilians. It has many compartments and possesses intrapulmonary bronchi.

Multicameral

61

This lung type is present in iguanas and chameleons. It has characteristics of both unicameral & multicameral lungs.

Paucicameral

62

Most snakes only have a single ___ lung.

right

63

There is no true ___ in reptiles that would separate the thoracic & abdominal cavity in mammals.

diaphragm

64

Since reptiles do not possess a true diaphragm, they have one cavity called

coelomic cavity

65

The single bone in the middle ear of reptiles is called

columella

66

The columella connects to the tympanum and the ____ bone.

quadrate

67

Since the columella articulates with the quadrate bone, it allows snakes to be very sensitive to ground vibrations transmitted through the

mandibles

68

Concerning feeding, snakes & crocodilians are strict

carnivores

69

Snakes & lizards have deeply forked tongues which function as particle delivery system for vomeronasal organ or _____ organ, an accessory olfactory organ.

Jacobson's

70

Venom glands are ____ salivary glands.

modified

71

Chelonians do not have teeth, instead they have keratinized beaks called

tomia

72

This type of dentition has teeth that are fused to the biting edge of the mandible and maxillae. They do not grow back if lost or broken. It is found in some species of lizards.

acrodont

73

This type of dentition has teeth attached to the periosteum on the medial aspects of both the mandibles and maxillae. Teeth are replaced periodically during the life of the animal. Snakes and iguanid lizards have these.

pleurodont

74

This type of dentition has teeth that arise from the sockets in the skull bones. They are replaced periodically during the life of the animal and are found only in crocodilians.

thecodont

75

Snakes have ___ rows of teeth: 2 mandibular, 2 maxillary, 2 palantine/ptergygoid bones.

6

76

Venom-delivering teeth are ___ with an opening near end where venom expelled.

hollow

77

Fangs receive venom through a duct from __ ___ at its base.

venom gland

78

Contraction of ____ around venom gland forces venom out through the fang.

muscles

79

Can snakes control the amount of venom delivered with each bite?

yes

80

A thin and distensible esophagus is found in a species that consume ____ prey.

large

81

Sea turtles have conical ____ that line the esophagus and aid in swallowing slippery food items.

projections

82

Crocodilians have a thick, ____ stomach comparable to the avian ventriculus.

muscular

83

_____ have longer intestinal tracts.

Herbivores

84

Snakes have a relatively ____ intestinal tract.

straight

85

The colon is ____ and complex in herbivores.

large

86

The ___ is the site of hindgut fermentation in herbivorous lizards and chelonians.

cecum

87

The cecum is ____ or rudimentary in carnivorous reptiles.

absent

88

Snakes have a ___ large liver lobe.

single

89

In chelonians, the spleen is combined with the pancreas to form the

splenopancreas

90

This is the common outflow tract for GI and urogenital tracts.

cloaca

91

The three chambers of the cloaca may be distinctly separated by muscular ___ in some species.

sphincters

92

What are the 3 parts of the cloaca?

coprodeum
urodeum
proctodeum

93

This part of the cloaca receives the rectum.

coprodeum

94

This part of the cloaca receives the urogenital openings: ureters and male reproductive organs of crocodilians and chelonians.

Urodeum

95

If a bladder is present in reptiles, it ____ urine received by the urodeum.

stores

96

This part of the cloaca is the last chamber before the vent.

proctodeum

97

Snakes' kidneys are

lobulated

98

Crocodilians, snakes, & some lizards do or do not have urinary bladders?

do not

99

Reptilian kidneys have ___ ___ renal pelvis.

no distinct

100

Since reptiles do not have ___ __ ___, they are not able to concentrate urine as mammals do.

loop of Henle

101

___ can be absorbed from the urine through the wall of the urinary bladder, rectum, or cloaca.

water

102

Terrestrial reptiles produce __ __ as a waste product. This aids in water conservation.

uric acid

103

Aquatic and semiaquatic reptiles produce ___, urea or both as waste product.

ammonia

104

Following the distal tubule of the nephron, a ___ segment is found that is believed to add secretions to the seminal fluid in males.

sexual

105

Renal portal veins arise from veins of the tail and ___ ____.

hind limb

106

This system allows reptile to discontinue blood flow to the glomeruli and decrease urine production during dehydration, while maintaining blood flow to renal tubules.

renal portal system

107

All male reptiles have internal testes located in the ___ ____ cavity.

dorsal coelomic

108

Do reptile copulatory organs have a urinary function?

no

109

Crocodilians and chelonians have a phallus of ___ tissue rising from the floor of the cloaca.

erectile

110

Snakes and lizards have paired ___ everted from the tail base through the vent.

hemipenes

111

Paired oviducts in reptiles lead to the cloaca and end in the dorsal wall of the

urodeum

112

Species that lay eggs, including crocodilians, chelonians, most lizards, some snakes

oviparous

113

In oviparous species, ___ and ___ is added to ova in the oviduct prior to egg laying.

albumin and shell

114

In these species, the fetuses are retained in the uterine portion of the oviduct.

ovoviviparous

115

Reptiles that digs nests to lay eggs. The act of laying eggs is called

oviposition

116

After oviposition or parturition, are most reptiles involved in the care of their eggs/offspring?

no
exceptions: crocodilians, pythons & cobras

117

Should reptile eggs be rotated during incubation?

no

118

Sex of reptiles can be determined by what 2 things?

genotype or
temperature at which eggs are incubated

119

Reptiles and Avians: what are the sex chromosomes for females & males?

F: ZW
M: ZZ

120

For species that do not have sex chromosomes (crocodilians, chelonians, tuataras, & some lizards), higher incubation temps produce ____ in crocodilians and lizards and the opposite in chelonians.

males
chelonians = females

121

In some snakes, ___ ___ may be larger in males to determine the sex.

pelvic spurs

122

____ chelonians have concave plastron and more distally located vent.

Male

123

Most reptiles have ___ thyroid gland.

one

124

The thyroid hormone is involved in ___ and ___ of reptiles.

ecdysis and growth

125

In reptiles, calcitonin is secreted by _____ bodies.

ultimobrachial

126

Adrenal glands of reptiles are usually within the ligaments that suspend the

gonads.

127

What are the 3 major divisions of the reptilian brain?

forebrain
midbrain
hindbrain

128

This section of the reptilian brain houses the olfactory lobes, cerebral hemispheres, and diencephalon.

Forebrain

129

This section of the reptilian brain houses the optic lobes, cerebral peduncles, and nerve fibers connecting the forebrain and hindbrain.

Midbrain

130

This section of the reptilian brain houses the cerebellum and medulla oblongata.

Hindbrain

131

Reptilian brains do not have surface gyri or sulci, also known as

lissencephalic

132

What are the 2 layers of meninges in reptiles?

pia-arachnoid layer
dura mater

133

This bone in the snake skull allows for wider opening of the mouth.

quadrate bone

134

____ do not have normal vertebrae, instead they have presacral, sacral, and caudal vertebral regions.

Chelonians

135

In reptiles, a ___ occipital condyle forms the articulation between skull and spine.

sing.e

136

Species that are capable of tail autonomy have ___ ___ along which the tails break.

fracture planes

137

The area of the reptilian skeleton where the scapula and coracoid bone have muscular attachments to the body.

pectoral girdle

138

These are vestigial pelvic limbs of boas and pythons that are found on either side of the vent. They are used in courtship behavior.

spurs

139

Snakes have well developed ____ muscles.

epaxial

140

Reptilian muscles are incapable of sustained ____ metabolism and switch quickly to _____ metabolism with prolonged physical exertion.

aerobic
anerobic

141

The skin of birds is ___ ___ with the exception of their feet.

very thin

142

The wing web is called the

patagium

143

Because birds lack biliverdin reductase which converts biliverdin to bilirubin, they bruise

green

144

There are ____ muscles in the dermis of birds that allow feather follicles to aid in heat regulation.

smooth

145

This gland, which is absent in most birds, is a holocrine sebaceous gland located in a fold of skin on the floor of the ear canal.

ear gland

146

This gland is located on the dorsal surface at the upper base of the tail. It is larger in aquatic species.

urogpygial (preen) gland

147

___ stimulates secretion of an oily, fatty substance from the uropygial gland.

preening

148

What is the purpose of the uropygial gland?

clean and waterproof feathers

149

The beak of birds is also known as the ____. It is a derivative of skin and grows continuously.

rhamphotheca

150

____ are a horny sheath derived from specialized scales at the end of each toe. They grow continuously.

Claws

151

____ are outgrowths of skin made of protein.

Feathers

152

Feathers are located in specific tracts called

pterylae

153

Bare areas of skin on birds are called

apteria

154

The opening at the base of the feather where it inserts into the skin. Blood vessels pass through this opening when a new feather is developing.

inferior umbilicus

155

The opening on feather shaft where webbed part of the feather begins.

superior umiblicus

156

An accessory feather thought to provide additional insulation. Located at superior umbilicus.

afterfeather

157

The quill, round, hollow, semitransparent. Extends from inferior to superior umbilicus.

calamus

158

The main feather shaft

rachis

159

The flattened part of the feather. Numerous slender, closely spaced barbs that give rise to barbules containing hooklets.

Vane

160

___ interlock each barb with the adjacent one.

Hooklets

161

Flight feathers of the wings and tail. Moved by muscles attached to the walls of the follicles.

contour feathers

162

wing feathers

remiges

163

tail feathers

retrices

164

small contour feathers around external ear openings. improve bird's ability to hear

auriculars

165

Feathers that have main rachis with barbs but no barbules or hooklets. Found under contour feathers. Provide insulation, flexibility for movement of contour feathers, buoyancy

semiplume feathers

166

Soft, fluffy feathers, lack a true shaft, no barbules or hooklets, located next to skin under contour feathers, fx in insulation

down feathers

167

Bare shaft with barbs on the tip. Located on the nape and upper back near contour feathers. nerve endings in follicles may play role in controlling feather movement.

filoplume feathers

168

Modified contour feathers. Stiff rachis with few barbs at base. May play role in sense of touch. May be found around eyes, nostrils, mouth & toes.

bristles

169

Grow continuously at the base. Disintegrate at their tip. Create waxy powder that spreads throughout the rest of the plumage. Cockatoos, cockatiels, african greys

powder down feathers

170

A weakened area on the feather vane where barbs lack barbules. Results from stress that interrupts blood flow during feather growth. Common stressor: poor diet.

stress bar

171

____ begins when a newly developing feather pushes the old feather out.

Molting

172

New feather emerges covered by ____ shaft. Shaft removed by preening.

keratin

173

___ ____ from dermis reach into new feather. When feather is fully grown these dry up.

blood vessels

174

During feather development, a growing feather is called a

blood feather

175

In most species, feather replacement is

symmetrical

176

Feathers develop from ____ in feather tracts of the dermis.

papillae

177

____ stimulate molting and activate cells in papillae.

Hormones

178

The skull, vertebral column, and sternum make up the ___ skeleton of the bird.

axial

179

The pectoral girdle, wings, pelvic girdle, legs, and feet make up the __ skeleton of the bird.

appendicular

180

Birds can move upper and lower bills independently due to the ____ bones in their skulls.

quadrate

181

Birds have a ____ ___ located in the sclera encircling the lens. It strengthens the eye and provides attachment for ciliary muscles.

sclerotic ring

182

The atlas of birds, similar to reptiles, contains a single ___ for attachment to the skull. This allows for greater range of head movements.

condyle

183

Birds have a ___ number of cervical vertebrae than mammals. (greater or smaller)

greater
11-25

184

The first few thoracic vertebrae of birds are

fused

185

The strong, bony plate created from fusion of several distal lumbar vertebrae, sacral vertebrae, and first few coccygeal vertebrae.

synsacrum

186

The bony structure created from fusion of some coccygeal vertebrae. Supports tail feathers.

pygostyle

187

This skeletal structure is large and concave. It is the site of origin of flight muscles. In some species, muscles attach to the large bony ridge or keel. In flightless birds, this lacks a keel.

sternum

188

This bone, aka wishbone, is positioned outward and forward from the body.

clavicle

189

What bones make up the pectoral girdle?

paired coracoids, scapulas, clavicles

190

The humerus of birds is air filled or

pneumatic

191

Wing muscles attach at the ___ ___ of the humerus.

pectoral crest

192

The web of skin on the wing, ligament runs along its cranial edge. Provides elasticity to the wing & assists in the aerodynamics of flight

Patagium

193

The first digit that originates from the wrist & carries the alula feathers (steering feathers).

Alula bone

194

The femur is air filled or

pneumatic

195

Birds with one toe facing the rear and the other 3 facing forward

anisodactyl

196

Birds with 2nd & 3rd toes facing forward & 1st and 4th directed backward. Parrots

zygodactyl

197

Intraosseous catheters can be placed in the distal ulna for long term therapy. They should not be placed in which bones?

pneumatic

198

Avian skeletal muscles that are thick in diameter, low blood supply, little myoglobin. Found in short-distance fliers

White fibers

199

Avian skeletal muscles that are thin, have rich supply of blood, fat, myoglobin & mitochondria. Found in long-distance fliers

Red fibers

200

Best sight for IM injections on birds

pectoralis muscle

201

This muscle is used to help chick break shell open and atrophies after hatching.

hatching muscle

202

Iris contains ___ muscles.

Skeletal

203

Is PLR a good diagnostic indicator?

no

204

Eyes are ___ placed in prey species.

laterally

205

The sclera in birds contains the

sclerotic ring

206

Vascular structure in avian eye attached to retina. Distributes nutrition to the eye.

pecten

207

Nocturnal birds have more ___ and less ___.

More rods
less cone

208

Each avian photoreceptor has a ___ connection with a bipolar nerve cell

single

209

Similar to reptiles, birds have a single bone in the middle ear called the

columella

210

On nocturnal owls: fleshy flap of skin at each external ear opening. Helps funnel sound into the ears.

operculum

211

Ear openings are ____ on nocturnal owls. This helps with vertical location of sound

asymmetrical

212

This gland regulates growth of body & feathers & may stimulate migration urge.

thyroid

213

In birds, this is the site of B lymphocyte differentiation.

Bursa of Fabricius

214

The location of the esophagus in birds is on the ___ side of the neck.

right

215

Expansion of the esophagus is some avian species. Storage pouch for food. Can be a dilation of the esophagus, single pouch or double pouch.

Crop

216

The anterior glandular stomach of birds. Site where chemical digestion begins.

proventriculus

217

Muscular stomach of birds, striated muscles that grind food. Many birds ingest small pieces of grit to aid in grinding food.

Ventriculus (gizzard)

218

The cranial section of the cloaca, receives excrement from the intestine.

coprodeum

219

Section of cloaca that receives discharge from the kidneys & genital ducts.

urodeum

220

The caudal section of the cloaca, stores the excrement.

proctodeum

221

muscular anus

vent

222

The avian heart is __ chambered.

4

223

Similar to reptiles, birds have a __ ___ ___ that shunts blood to the kidneys.

rental portal system

224

____ heat exchange system in lower extremities of some aquatic & terrestrial species. A network of arteries & veins. Blood reaching lower extremities is cooler & less of a temp gradient exists with the environment so less heat loss.

countercurrent

225

Venipuncture sites in birds (3)

jugular vein
brachial vein
medial metatarsal vein

226

Similar to reptiles, RBCs in birds are

oval and nucleated

227

"V" shaped cleft in the palate of birds. Open from nasal chambers into roof of mouth.

choana

228

The ___ of birds does not function in production of sound as in mammals.

larynx

229

Birds: enlargement of trachea cranial to the bifurcation. Voice box, contains muscles, air sacs & vibrating membranes.

syrinx

230

Birds have ___ tracheal rings.

complete

231

The trachea bifurcates into 2 bronchi. Bronchi loose their cartilage rings in the lungs and become

mesobronchi

232

Instead of alveoli, birds have

air capillaries

233

Where is the site of gas exchange in birds?

air capillaries

234

Air sacs make up ___% of the total volume of the respiratory system.

80%

235

What are the 4 paired air sacs?

cervical, cranial thoracic, caudal thoracic, abdominal

236

What is the 1 unpaired air sac?

interclavicular

237

Does gas exchange occur in the air sacs?

no

238

These act as reservoirs for air & provide warmth & moisture to facilitate diffusion of air through the lung capillaries. Aid in thermoregulation, provid buoyancy

air sacs

239

Do birds have a diaphragm?

no

240

How many inspirations & expirations are required to transport one pocket of air through the entire respiratory system?

2 inhalations
2 exhalations

241

Since air is "pushed" into the lungs, versus inflating & deflating, there is no __ volume as in mammals. No mixing of old & new air

residual

242

How do birds cool off?

bathe
reduce activity level
defecate on legs
adjust feathers
countercurrent heat exchange

243

Avian kidneys are elongated with __ divisions.

3

244

Do avian kidneys have a renal pelvis?

no

245

Urine passes through ureters to the ___ of the cloaca

urodeum

246

Do birds have a bladder and urethra?

no

247

Avian urine is primarily composed of

uric acid

248

The excreted product is called a

mute

249

What stimulates release of hormones that directly affect the reproductive process?

increased daylight

250

In both avian sexes, the reproductive organs are larger on the __ side of the body.

left

251

During the nonbreeding season, avian gonads

shrink.

252

Sperm travel in seminal fluid down the vas deferens to a storage pouch called the

seminal vesicle

253

How can copulation be achieved in birds?

penis
close proximity

254

This section of the oviduct grabs the ovum as it comes out of the ovary

infundibulum

255

This section of the oviduct secretes layers of albumin (egg white) around egg.

magnum

256

This section of the oviduct deposits the keratin shell memebrane.

isthmus

257

This section of the oviduct deposits watery albumin, a hard external shell & pigmentation. Also called the shell gland.

uterus

258

The number of eggs that a female lays and incubates

clutch

259

These birds have a specific number of follicles that develop.

determinate layers

260

These birds can produce more eggs than their normal clutch size.

indeterminate layers

261

___ promotes broodiness (incubation behavior).

prolactin

262

Hormones also stimulate a development of ___ ___, area of skin on the lower abdomen where heat is transferred to the egg.

brood patch

263

As with reptiles, sex chromosomes are similar in birds. What are they?

M: ZZ
F: ZW

264

Hatched with eyes closed and skin bard

altricial

265

Chicks coverd with down, are immobile, eyes may be open or closed.

semialtricial

266

Chicks covered with downy feathers, eyes open, are mobile, leave the nest quickly.

precocial

267

Chicks with downy covering, eyes open, limited movement from the nest.

semiprecocial

268

Which valves are open/closed during atrial and ventricular diastole?

AV valves open
semilunar valves closed

269

Which valves are open/closed during ventricular systole?

AV valves closed
semilunar valves open

270

Which valves are open/closed during atrial systole?

AV valves open
semilunar valves closed

271

What is pleural effusion?

excessive fluid in the thoracic cavity

272

What is pulmonary edema

excessive fluid in lung tissue

273

What is the term for the pacemaker of the heart?

sinoatrial none (SA node)

274

What is the connection between the pulmonary artery and the aorta in the fetux?

ductus arteriosus

275

Which sound of the heart is this: ventricular systole, closure of AV valves

S1

276

Which sound of the heart is this: closure of semilunar valves, ventricular diastole

S2

277

What sound of the heart is this: rapid ventricular filling (large animals only)

S3

278

What sound of the heart is this: contraction of atria (large animals only)

S4

279

What side of the chest can the closure of the mitral valve be heard?

left

280

What side of the chest can the closure of the tricuspid valve be hear on?

right

281

What side of the chest can the closure of the aortic & pulomonic valves be heard?

left

282

Which wave of the electrocardiogram: depolarization of atria

P wave

283

Which wave of the electrocardiogram: ventricular depolarization and atrial repolarization

QRS complex

284

Which wave of the electrocardiogram: repolarization of ventricles

T wave

285

In the Triaden system, teeth in the R maxillary quadrant are in the

100 series

286

In the Triaden system, teeth in the L maxillary quadrant are in the

200 series

287

In the Triaden system, teeth in the R mandibular quadrant are in the

300 series

288

In the Triaden system, teeth in the L mandibular quadrant are in the

400 series

289

Which teeth are considered the carnassial teeth in dogs? They are a common place for abscesses

4th premolar in upper arcade
1st molar in lower arcade

290

What cells produce hydrogen and chloride in the fundus and body of the stomach?

parietal cells

291

What is the area where the esophagus enters the stomach called?

cardia

292

What is the thin sheet of connective tissue which suspends the digestive tract in the abdomen from the dorsal body wall?

mesentery

293

What is the longest portion of the small intestine?

jejunum

294

Where does fermentation take place in nonruminant herbivores?

large intestine

295

What structures are included in the upper respiratory tract?

nares to trachea

296

What structures are included in the lower respiratory tract?

bronchi to alveoli

297

This structure is commonly elongated in brachycephalic breeds.

soft palate

298

The vocal cords attach to which cartilage?

arytenoid cartilages

299

Where is visceral peritoneum found?

lines the abdominal organs and structures

300

Where is parietal pleura found?

lines the thoracic cavity

301

Where is visceral pleura found?

lines the thoracic organs & structures

302

Where is parietal peritoneum found?

lines the abdominal cavity

303

What happens to increase amounts of mucus produced in the trachea?

cilia move mucus and trapped foreign material back to the pharynx, where it is swallowed or spit out

304

What is the site of external respiration?

alveoli

305

What are the inspiratory muscles?

diaphragm & external intercostal muscles

306

What are the expiratory muscles?

internal intercostal muscles & abdominal muscles

307

What type of receptors are located in the carotid arteries, aorta, and brain stem and monitor CO2, pH, and O2 in the blood?

chemical receptors

308

This digestive compartment of ruminants is known as the "true" stomach.

abomasum

309

Milk is able to bypass which compartments in a young ruminant via the reticular groove?

rumen & reticulum

310

Where are bile acids made?

liver

311

Cells that support neurons structurally and functionally in the nervous system are called what?

glial cells

312

Axons in the PNS are often covered by what?

schwann cells

313

What part of the nervous system controls voluntary nervous system functions?

somatic nervous system

314

What is the absolute refractory period of a neuron?

neuron cannot depolarize regardless of the intensity of the stimulus

315

Are these statements true or false about norepinephrine?
-It is released from the preganglionic neuron in the sympathetic nervous system
-Causes increased GI motility

false

316

What part of the brain is responsible for motor skills?

cerebellum

317

This supplies a rich network of blood vessels that supply nutrients and oxygen to the superficial tissues of the brain & spinal cord.

meninges

318

The white matter of the spinal cord contains what?

myelinated nerve fibers

319

Sympathetic or parasympathetic?
preganglionic neuron synapses with one or more postganglionic neuron. Preganglionic neuron short, postganglionic neuron long

Sympathetic

320

Sympathetic or parasympathetic?
Preganglionic neuron travels directly from the brain and sacral region of the spinal cord to its target organ. Preganglionic neuron long, synapses with short postganglionic neuron in target organ.

Parasympathetic

321

Autonomic reflex arcs involve what target tissues?

smooth muscles, endocrine glands, cardiac muscle

322

A reflex arc commonly used to assess the depth of anesthesia is what?

palpebral reflex

323

Visceral sensations can originate where?

GI, urinary bladder, arteries

324

Nociceptors are not found in what organ?

brain

325

The slit-like opening of the Eustachian tube is located where?

pharynx

326

This ring-shaped structure immediately behind the iris contains muscles that adjust the shape of the lens.

ciliary body

327

Name the type and function of cranial nerve I.

olfactory, sensory, smell

328

Name the type and function of cranial nerve II.

optic, sensory, vision

329

Name the type and function of cranial nerve VIII.

vestibulocochlear, sensory, balance & hearing

330

Name the type and function of cranial nerve X.

vagus, sensory and motor, abdominal and thoracic

331

The pituitary gland is also known as what?

hypophysis

332

Another name for somatotropic hormone is?

growth hormone

333

Hormone secretion is usually controlled by ___ ___ systems.

negative feedback

334

The portal vessels of the endocrine system link the

AP of the pituitary gland with the hypothalamus

335

The posterior pituitary gland receives what hormones from the hypothalamus?

oxytocin and ADH

336

These gland contain glandular and nervous tissue

posterior pituitary
adrenal gland

337

This structure arises from ovarian follicle cells and produces progestin hormones needed to maintain pregnancy.

corpus luteum

338

In most animals, ovulation occurs when this hormone reaches its peak.

LH

339

Where is ADH released from, where does it have its effect, and what does it do?

Released from PP gland
acts of DCT & collecting ducts
promotes water reabsorption

340

This hormone stimulates strong uterine contractions in the uterus at the time of parturition.

oxytocin

341

These hormones help to maintain blood pressure, resist effects of stress, cause blood glucose to rise, and are also known as steriods.

glucocorticoids

342

The pancreas produces insulin, which functions to:

move glucose into the cells, thereby lowering blood levels of glucose

343

The pineal body produces ____, which affects moods & wake-sleep cycles.

melatonin

344

The kidneys of these animals have a multipyramidal or multilobular appearance.

cattle

345

The majority of reabsorption occurs where in the nephron?

proximal convoluted tubules

346

Secretion is the term used to describe the process of:

waste products in the peritubular capillaries entering the distal convoluted tubules

347

Blood in the glomerular capillaries flows into which vessel next?

efferent glomerular arterioles

348

Aldosterone causes reabsorption of ____ in the distal convoluted tubules

sodium (water follows)

349

The blood in these vessels contain the least amount of waste in the body.

renal vein

350

What happens to the corpus luteum, and what hormones are produced if an ovum has been fertilized and implants in the uterus?

-influenced by continued stimulation of LH
-produces progestins necessary for maintenance or pregnancy

351

What hormone level must increase (or surge) before ovulation will occur?

LH

352

An influx of ____ into the synaptic knob results in the fusing of vesicles, containing neurotransmitters, with the knobs's cellular membrane.

calcium

353

Norepinephrine is broken down by

-monoamin oxidase in synaptic knob
-catechol-o-methyl transferase in the cleft

354

Which dog breed is sensitive to ivermectin and why?

Collies, blood brain barrier different than most dogs

355

Where is calcitonin made and what does it do?

kidneys, functions to prevent hypercalcemia

356

Where is ACTH released, what stimulates its release, and where does it have its effect?

Can be released quickly via stimulation of the hypothalamus by other parts of the brain

357

Thyroid hormone affect the metabolism of proteins, lipids an carbohydrates similar to

growth hormone

358

PTH prevents hypocalcemia by all of the following except:

causing kidneys to release calcitonin

359

Aldotserone is a mineralocorticoid that:

causes sodium and water retention, released from adrenal cortex

360

Know the action of thyroid hormone and what stimulates its release.

increases with cold temps

361

A deficiency of antidiuretic hormone in the body causes the disease:

Diabetes insipidus

362

The part of the brain responsible for learning, intelligence, and awareness is

cerebrum

363

The blood brain barrier is found in the

capillaries

364

Postganglionic neuron of the autonomic nervous system releases acetylcholine, what do you not expect to happen?

increased heart rate

365

neurons rely on __ for energy.

glucose