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anatomy-horse And Ruminant > Abdomen > Flashcards

Flashcards in Abdomen Deck (82):
0

What are the borders of the para lumbar fossa?

Cranial: rib 18
Caudal tuber: coxae
Ventral: line of tension of the internal abdominal oblique muscle

1

What nerve innervates the flank?

Lateral cutaneous branches of the ventral branches of thoracic and lumbar spinal nerves

2

What nerve is located at the costochondral junction of rib 18?

Costoabdominal nerve

3

L1 is what common named nerve

Iliohypogastric

4

L2 is what common named nerve?

Ilioinguinal

5

L3 is what common named nerve?

Genitofemoral nerve

6

L4 is what common named nerve? Where do you find it?

Lateral cutaneous femoral nerve. Found at the sub iliac lymph node with the caudal branch of the deep circumflex iliac artery

7

Where would you make your incision to access the abdominal cavity?

Paramedian through rectus abdominus

8

What is the abdominal tunic covering the external abdominal oblique called?

Flava abdominis

9

The caudal edge of this muscle forms the inguinal ligament

External abdominal oblique

10

What is the 'heave line'?

Hypertophy of the muscular portion of the external abdominal oblique during emphysema

11

Superficial inguinal ring is a slit to this portion of what muscle

The aponeurotic portion of the external abdominal oblique

12

The cremaster muscle is a projection of what muscle?

Internal abdominal oblique

13

Under the connective tissue of the internal abdominal oblique is this muscle

Rectus abdominis

14

The muscle fibers of the transversus abdominus run in this direction

Vertical

15

The cranial branch of the deep circumflex artery can be seen passing through this muscle

Transversus abdominis

16

On the left side of the horse the liver is located where?

7-9 intercostal space high

17

On the left side of the horse the spleen is located where?

Base 15-18 intercostal space high
Apex 9-12 intercostal space middle

18

On the left side of the horse the stomach is located where

9-15 intercostal space high

19

What intestines are topographically located on the left side of the horse?

LDC LVC small intestine (jejunum, ileum, mesentery), small colon (the poop shoot)

20

On the right side of the horse the liver is located where

7-16 intercostal high

21

Descending duodenum is topographically located on the right side at what intercostal space?

Under the ribs

22

Where are the parts of the cecum located on the topography of the horse?

Right side of the horse
Base : right par alumnae fossa
Body : against flank
Apex : going craniomedially towards the midline

23

What two segments of the colon are located on the right side topographically?

RDC and RVC

24

The right kidney is located in what topographic region?

T16,17,18,L1

25

In what topographic region does the left kidney reside?

T18, L1,2,3

26

What's the general totpgraphic region that the ovaries are located?

Between the tuber coxae and the last rib

27

What structures make up the porta?

Portal vein, hepatic artery, hepatic duct

28

What are the lobes of the horse liver?

Left lateral, left medial, quadrate, right, caudate process (not a full lobe)

29

What vascular structure does the hepatic vein empty into?

Caudal vena cava

30

Within the falciform ligament lies this structure...what residual structure is this?

The round ligament the remnant of the umbilical vein

31

What are the boundaries of the epiploic foramen?

Dorsal: caudate process and caudal vena cava
Ventral: pancreas and portal vein

32

What separates the glandular and nonglandular portions of the equine stomach?

Margo plicatus

33

What don't horses vomit?

1. Very strong cardiac sphincter
2. Esophagus enters stomach at an acute angle
3. Mucosal flaps of stomach obscure cardia

34

What inserts on the major duodenal papilla?

@cranial duodenal flexure common opening for hepatic duct and pancreatic duct

35

What opens on the minor duodenal papilla?

Opening for the accessory pancreatic duct

36

What are the 3 parts of the stomach?

Fundus, body, pylorus

37

What is the pancreatic ring

In the horse it's the ring of pancreatic tissue that surrounding the portal vein traveling through the pancreatic body

38

Where is the root of the mesentery located?

In the horse L1

39

What is the ileal papilla

It's a protrusion of ilium into cecum through the ileocecal orifice

40

RVC is attached to cecum by this ligament

Cecocolic ligament

41

What is the number formulation of teniae coli?

Cecum 4
RVC 4
LVC 4
LDC 1
RDC 3
Transverse colon 2-3
Small colon 2

42

What are the three anatomical sites for obstruction?

Pelvic flexure
RDC-TC
Cecocolic orifice

43

What physiological factors can lead to obstruction?

Intussusception. Motor control on ileum causes and accordion folding of ileum in the cecum

44

What are the boundaries of the par alumnae fossa in the ruminant?

Dorsal: along the transverse process of the lumbar vertebra
Cranial: rib 13
Caudal: tuber coxae
Ventral: line of tension of the internal abdominal oblique

45

Give the common name for this nerve and the transverse process it crosses in the ruminant:
T13

Costoabdominal L1

46

Give the common name for this nerve and the transverse process it crosses in the ruminant:
L1

Iliohypogastric transverse process of L2

47

Give the common name for this nerve and the transverse process it crosses in the ruminant:
L2

Ilioinguinal transverse process of L4

48

Topography of the left side of the ruminant

Reticulum, rumen, spleen

49

On the left side of the cow the rumen takes up what anatomical spaces?

7 th intercostal space to the pelvic inlet

50

On the left side of the cow the reticulum can be found at what topographical region?

In contact with the body wall between the 6&7 rib

51

On the left side of the cow the spleen takes up what anatomical region?

Dorsal between 8-12 rib

52

What are the organs topographically located on the right side of the cow?

Omasum, abomasum, liver, right kidney, left kidney, duodenum, colon, cecum

53

The omasum can be found at what topographic location?

Intercostal space 7-9 with the round portion coming in contact with the 11 rib

54

Where does the abomasum lie topographically?

The funds is located at the xiphoid process and the pylorus at the 9-10 intercostal space

55

The liver in the cow lies at this topographic region

Sits vertical on the right side between ribs 7-13

56

The right kidney in the cow is located at this anatomical region

T13 - L3 right side

57

The left kidney in the cow is located at this topographical region

Right side between the transverse processes of L3 - L5

58

What is the function of the gastric groove in the ruminant?

In suckling calves it shunts milk from the esophagus to the abomasum

59

Name the path of the ingesta through the ascending colon of the cow

Proximal loop, spiral loop (centripetal gyri, central flexure, centrifugal gyri), distal loop

60

Name the sections of the ruminant pancreas

Left lobe, body, right lobe

61

The body of the ruminant pancreas has what structure? What passes through this?

The pancreatic notch where the portal vein runs through

62

Name the papilla in the duodenum for ruminant species what ducts terminate there and any species differences

The major and minor papilla in the bovine the bovine has an accessory duct that terminates on the minor papilla and the bile duct empties on the major papilla

The sheep and goat ONLY have the pancreatic duct that terminates at the major papilla and the bile duct. There is NO minor papilla or accessory duct

63

Name the lobes of the liver and any important processes

Left lobe, quadrate lobe, right lobe, caudate lobe (caudate process, papillary process)

64

Does the horse have a gall bladder?

No

65

Do ruminants have a gall bladder?

Yes it lies between the quadrate lobe and the right lobe

66

What are the branches of the celiac artery in the ruminant?

Splenic: rt ruminal, lt ruminal, reticular
Hepatic
Left gastric artery

67

The transverse colon in the ruminant is always located ____________ to the root of the mesentery

Cranial

68

The caudal flexure is always ________ to the root of the mesentery

Caudal

69

Name the branches of the ileocolic artery and the important areas supplied. (Ruminant)

Right colic : distal loop and centrifugal gyri (RDF)
Colic branch of the ileocolic: proximal loop and centripetal gyri (CPP)

70

What does the dorsal vagal trunk innervate in the ruminant?

Primarily the rumen

71

What does the ventral vagal trunk innervate in the ruminant?

Reticulum, omasum, and abomasum

72

What are the two aspects of the greater omentum in the ruminant? And what is its function

Superficial leaf and deep leaf. It acts like a sling between the duodenum and rumen

73

What two grooves of the rumen does the greater omentum attach to?

Right longitudinal groove from the deep leaf and the left longitudinal groove from the superficial leaf

74

What is located in the omental bursa of the ruminant

Ventral sac of the rumen

75

What is located in the supraomental recess of the ruminant

Small intestine (jejunum, ilium), colon, female: uterus

76

What is bloat in the ruminant?

Rumen becomes abnormally distended as a result of gas or frothy digests

77

What is hardware disease?

Traumatic reticuloperitonitis where due to anatomical closeness of the reticulum and the heart metal objects that were ingested can penetrate pericardial sac/heart

78

What is abomasal displacement?

Abomasum moves from normal position to either LDA or RDA

79

What are abomasal ulcers

Not that hard. This was a waste of a card.

80

What is cecal dilation?

Cecum becomes distended with gas or fluid. May be up to 10x normal size

81

Vagus indigestion refers to what?

Trauma or anything that disrupts the vagal innervations of the ruminant digestion. May be due to bronchopneumonia enlarging mediastinal lymph nodes that may impinge or inflame the vagus as it passes through the thoracic cavity