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Flashcards in Thorax Deck (50):
0

The withers run between which vertebrae?

T2-T8

1

How many sternebrae are there?

6 or 7

2

The heart is positioned between which IC spaces?

2 to 6

3

What are the names of the interventricular grooves and which is on the left/right side?

Paraconal interventricular groove - left; subsinuosal interventricular groove - right

4

The fossa ovalis is in which chamber? Where is it specifically and what is its name in the fetus?

Right atrium; depression in the interatrial septum just caudal to the intervenous tubercle; foramen ovale

5

What is the opening of the coronary sinus and where is it located?

The terminal end of venous drainage of the heart itself; ventral to entrance of caudal vena cava

6

The conus arteriosus is in which chamber?

Right ventricle

7

What is the trabecula septomarginalis and where is it located?

Muscular strand from septal to parietal wall that contains Purkinje fibers; right ventricle

8

What structure is unique to the bovine heart?

Ossa cordis - ossified fibrocartilage

9

Where is the puncta maxima in the horse (left/right)?

Left:
Pulmonary - 3rd IC low
Aortic - 4th IC high
Left A-V (mitral) - 5th IC low

Right:
Right A-V - 3rd-4th IC low

10

What is different about the puncta maxima in the cow?

Left A-V - 4th IC low

11

Scapula is in which IC space?

7

12

Olecranon is in which IC space?

5

13

Which muscle limits access to heart sounds and where does it extend from?

Triceps; caudal border of scapula to olecranon
*see previous notecards with IC spaces

14

Branches of the left subclavian a.

Costocervical trunk
-Dorsal scapular
Deep cervical
Vertebral
Internal thoracic
Superficial cervical

15

Branches of the right subclavian a.

Costocervical trunk
-Deep cervical
-Dorsal scapular
-Branch supplying 1st few intercostal aa.
Vertebral
Internal thoracic
Superficial cervical

16

What is different about the subclavian branches in cattle?

Costocervical trunk gives rise to deep cervical and vertebral aa. on both the left and right side

17

The horse has which azygos vein?

Right

18

Ruminants have which azygos vein?

Left OR both

19

Thymus growth and location in the horse

Largest at 2 mos. then regresses, little remains after 3 years; cranial mediastinum

20

Thymus growth in cattle

Both the cervical and thoracic portions grow rapidly in first 6-9 mos. then regress variably, thoracic portion may still be large in animals several yrs old

21

What is the significance of the proximity of the caudal mediastinal ln to the vagus n.?

They can compress the nerve; since the vagus innervates the esophagus and rumen, this can result in GI problems

22

Parasympathetic nn. branching from the vagus n.

Dorsal branches from left and right vagus (form dorsal vagal trunk)
Ventral branches from left and right vagus (form ventral vagal trunk)
Recurrent laryngeal n.

23

Where can the recurrent laryngeal n. be seen from the right and left sides?

Left - leaves vagus and courses around aortic arch
Right - courses around right subclavian a.

24

Sympathetic structures of the thorax

Sympathetic trunk and ganglion
Cervicothoracic ganglion
Middle cervical ganglion
-ansa subclavia *connects cervicothoracic and middle cervical ganglia
Vertebral nn. - sympathetic contribution to cervical spinal nn.

25

Cardiac nn. are sympathetic or parasympathetic?

Both

26

Which nn. make up the phrenic n.? Which m. does the phrenic cross?

C5, C6, C7; scalenus, then enters thoracic inlet

27

Which nn. make up the brachial plexus? Out of which m. do they emerge?

C6, C7, C8, T1, T2; scalenus

28

At what level does the trachea bifurcate in the horse? Is it dorsal or ventral to the esophagus?

T5 or T6; ventral to esophagus

29

At what level does the trachea bifurcate in cattle? At what level is the tracheal bronchus?

T5; T3

30

Which vessels provide functional supply to the lungs? Nutritional supply?

Functional - left and right pulmonary aa.
Nutritional - bronchoesophageal a.

31

Equine lung lobes

Left - cranial, caudal
Right - cranial, caudal, accessory

32

What are the cardiac notches and where are they located on each side?

Allow pericardium contact with chest wall, approximate division between cranial and caudal lobes
Left - ribs 3-6
Right - ribs 3-4

33

Ruminant lung lobes

Left - cranial (cranial part, caudal part), caudal
Right - cranial, middle, caudal, accessory

34

Where are the cardiac notches located on each side in ruminants?

Left - ribs 3-5
Right - ribs 3-4

35

The tracheal bronchus supplies which lobe (ruminants only)?

Right cranial lobe

36

The basal border of the lungs, which contacts the diaphragm, is located where in the horse?

Costochondral junction of 6th rib
Middle of 11th rib
Dorsal part of 16th rib
(6, 11, 16)

37

Borders of the lung field (auscultation triangle) in the horse

Cranial border - caudal aspect of triceps
Dorsal border - lateral edge of back mm.
Ventral border - basal border of lung (6, 11, 16)

38

What is different about the auscultation triangle in cattle?

The ventral border (basal border of the lung) is the 6th costochondral junction to the dorsal 11th rib (6, 11).

39

Costodiaphragmatic recess

Potential space where costal and peripheral part of diaphragmatic pleura contact

40

Cupula pleurae

Outpouching of pleura on medial side of right 1st rib, extending several cm. in the neck

41

Line of pleural reflection and location

Reflection of the costal pleura onto the diaphragm; costochondral junction of ribs 8-9, curves caudally and dorsally from costochondral junctions of succeeding ribs to vertebral end of rib 17

42

What is different about the line of pleural reflection in ruminants?

It starts at the 8th costochondral junction, to the mid 11th rib, and ends at rib 12

43

Site for thoracocentesis in the horse

7th IC space low

44

Site for thoracocentesis in the ruminant

6th or 7th IC space low

45

Where is the vertex (most cranial part) of the diaphragm located?

Rib 6

46

What goes through the aortic hiatus?

Aorta
Azygos v.
Thoracic duct

47

What goes through the esophageal hiatus?

Esophagus
Vagal trunks

48

What goes through the foramen venae cavae?

Caudal vena cava

49

The intercostal aa/vv/nn are located on which aspect of the ribs?

Caudal aspect