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Flashcards in Thoracic limb (2) Deck (131):
1

Function of extrinsic muscles

Attach the limb to the trunk

2

Rhomboideus cervicis/thoracis

innervated by cervical spinal nerves
Function: move neck or shoulder

3

Serratus Ventralis cervicis

innervated by cervical spinal nerves
function: acts as a sling/ retracts the scapula

4

Trapezius cervicis/thoracis

innervated by CN XI-accessory nerve

5

Brachiocephalicus

innervated by CN XI-accessory nerve

6

omotransversarius

innervated by CN XI- accessory nerve

7

What are the 4 pectoral muscles? What is their function and innervation?

Subclavius, descending pectoral, transverse pectoral, deep pectoral
Innervated by pectoral nerves
Function: Adduct the limb

8

Serratus ventralis thoracis

innervated by long thoracic nerves
function: acts as a sling/ retracts the scapula

9

what is the condition involving injury to the suprascapular n. and what muscles does it effect?

Sweeney--infraspinatus, supraspinatus

10

what is the lacertus fibrosus

Continuation of internal tendon of biceps brachii, joins extensor carpi radialis
Function: helps prevent flexing of shoulder

11

What are the extensor muscles and what is their origin, function and innervations

Extensor carpi radialis, common digital extensor, lateral digital extensor, ulnaris lateralis
Origin: lateral epicondyle of the humerus
Innervation: Radial nerve
Function:Extensors of the carpus and digits

12

What muscle is analogous to the adductor pollicis muscle in canine?

extensor carpi obliquus--horses lack a pollex (1st digit)

13

what are the flexor muscles of the antebrachium and what is their origin, function, and innervation

Deep digital flexor, superficial digital flexor, flexor carpi ulnaris (humeral and ulnar head), flexor carpi radialis
Origin: medial epicondyle of the humerus
innervation: median and ulnar nerves
Function: Flexor of the carpus and digits

14

Accessory ligament of SDF

band of tissue from radius that holds SDF in place
(Proximal Check Ligament)

15

Accessory band of the DDF

band of tissue holding the DDF in place (Distal Check ligament)

16

Suspensory ligament

Band of connective tissue equivalent to the interosseus muscles in other species

17

Order of structures during palpation of limb from deep to superficial.

cannon bone (splint bones), suspensory ligament, DDF tendon, SDF tendon

18

What artery is a contiuation of the subclavian artery and is the origin of blood flow to the thoracic limb

Axillary artery--courses from the axillary space to the medial side of the scapula

19

what is the distal continuation of the axillary artery

brachial artery begins at the level of proximal antebrachium

20

what is the continuation of the brachial artery distal to the level of the carpus

Median artery--enters and passes through the carpal canal

21

what artery is the principle blood supply to the equine digit

medial palmar artery--emerges distal to the carpal canal

22

Medial palmar artery splits at the level of the fetlock into..

medial and lateral digital arteries--continue down to level of PIII and enter into solar foramina

23

what is the arcus terminalis

medial and lateral digital arteries enter the solar foramina at the level of PIII and anastomose inside the solar canal to form the terminal arch

24

What branch of the axillary artery courses on the cranial aspect of the scapula and dives deep between supraspinatus and subscapularis muscles?

Suprascapular artery

25

what branch of the axillary artery runs between the subscapularis and teres major muscles along the caudal aspect of the caudal angle of the scapula?

Subscapular artery

26

What branch of the axillary wraps around the caudal aspect of the proximal humerus

caudal circumflex humeral

27

branch of the axillary artery that supplies latissimus dorsi

thoracodorsal

28

Last branch of the axillary artery that wraps around the cranial aspect of the proximal humerus.

Cranial circumflex humeral--anastomoses with caudal circumflex humeral forming vascular ring

29

First branch of the brachial artery dives deep into the mid-brachial region

deep brachial artery

30

Any artery going to the biceps brachii

Bicipital artery-possible to have more than one

31

Branch of the brachial artery that courses caudally toward medial side of elbow and fans into more than one branch

collateral ulnar artery--continues distally down caudolateral aspect of limb to contribute to the formation of the lateral palmar artery

32

Branch of brachial artery that dives at the level of the elbow to supply the joint and contributes to the formation of the rete carpi dorsale

transverse cubital artery

33

Last branch of brachial artery dives between interosseous space between the radius and ulna

common interosseus--branches into cranial and caudal interosseous

34

What is the rete carpi dorsale?

spider web like network of arteries of the dorsal aspect of the carpus that gives rise to two dorsal metacarpal arteries distally (medial and lateral dorsal metacarpal aa.)

35

what two arteries form the rete carpi dorsale

transverse cubital and cranial interosseous arteries

36

First Branch of the median artery supplying the caudomedial muscles of the antebrachium

Deep antebrachial artery

37

branch of the median artery that supplies the carpal joint

Proximal radial artery

38

principal blood flow to the digit

median a. --> medial palmar a.

39

Ancillary blood flow; lateral and deep

Median a. --> palmar branch of median a.

40

ancillary blood flow;medial and deep

median a. --> radial a.

41

what arteries are branches of the medial palmar artery after it divides at the fetlock that then form the dorsal and palmar branches of PI,PII,PIII and branch to the digital cushion enters medial solar foramen.

Medial and lateral digital arteries

42

Palmar branch of the median a.

fuses with collateral ulnar a. to form the lateral palmar artery. part of the ancillary blood flow: lateral and deep

43

branch of the palmar branch of the median artery that supplies the deep palmar arch and fuses with the lateral digital artery

lateral palmar artery

44

what artery arises from the median artery at the same level as the palmar branch of the median artery and courses medially

Radial artery

45

Deep palmar arch

gives off the medial and lateral palmar metacarpal arteries which fuse at distal end of splint bone and empty into lateral digital artery

46

Median cubital vein

connects superficial and deep venous return of thoracic limb

47

Brachial plexus

Ventral branches of spinal nn. C6, 7, 8, T1, 2

48

nn. of brachial plexus exit what

Intervertebral foramina

49

Long thoracic n. innervates

Serratus ventralis

50

Lateral thoracic n. innervates

Cutaneus trunci

51

Suprascapular n. Iocation/innervates

Dives b/w supraspinatus and infraspinatus and courses around cranial scapula to lateral side; supra and infraspinatus

52

Subscapular n. location

Branches entering directly into subscapularis

53

Thoracodorsal n. innervates

Latissimus dorsi

54

Axillary n. location/innervates

Dives b/w subscapularis and teres major as passes toward lateral side; teres major, teres minor, deltoideus

55

Cranial pectoral n. innervates

Superficial pectoral mm.

56

Caudal pectoral n. innervates

Deep pectoral mm.

57

Radial n. location/innervates

Dives at mid-brachial region toward lateral limb; triceps mm. and craniolateral mm. of antebrachium (extensors of carpus and digit)

58

Musculocutaneous n. branches/innervates

proximal and distal muscular branches; flexors of elbow joint - biceps brachii and brachialis
*fused w/ median n. in horse

59

Median n. innervates

Caudomedial mm. of antebrachium (flexors of carpus and digit), functional overlap w/ ulnar
*fused w/ musculocutaneous in brachial region

60

Ulnar n. innervates

Caudomedial mm. of antebrachium (flexors of carpus and digit), functional overlap w/ median

61

Primary difference b/w canine and equine TL neurology

Path of median and ulnar nn. distal to carpus

62

Path of median n.

Median -> medial and lateral palmar -> medial and lateral digital (level of fetlock) -> dorsal branches of medial and lateral digital

63

Communicating branch

Connects medial and lateral palmar nn. at mid metacarpal region

64

Branches of ulnar n.

Dorsal branch of ulnar
Palmar branch of ulnar + lateral palmar n. from median -> deep branch of the lateral palmar -> medial and lateral palmar metacarpal

65

Cranial cutaneous antebrachial n. parent n.

Axillary n.

66

Caudal cutaneous antebrachial n. parent n.

Ulnar n.

67

Medial cutaneous antebrachial n. parent n.

Musculocutaneous n.

68

Lateral cutaneous antebrachial n. parent n.

Radial n.

69

Synovial joint compartments (3)

Antebrachiocarpal = radiocarpal joint
Midcarpal joint
Carpometacarpal joint
-last 2 communicate

70

Synovial tendon sheath of ulnaris lateralis

Short tendon - no sheath
Long tendon - sheath

71

Which flexor m. doesn't have a synovial tendon sheath

Flexor carpi ulnaris

72

Synovial tendon sheath of SDF and DDF

Common sheath = carpal sheath

73

What tendons, vessel, and nerve run through the flexor retinaculum

SDF, DDF, median a., medial palmar n.

74

What is the deep boundary of the carpal canal

Palmar carpal ligament

75

Order of palpation starting w/ SDF (outermost structure)

SDF -> DDF -> suspensory ligament = interosseus m. -> MC IV

76

What 2 mm. fuse and insert on the extensor process of PIII

Common and lateral digital extensors

77

Interosseus m. (suspensory ligament) inserts where

Bifurcates and inserts on proximal sesamoids

78

Where does DDF insert

Flexor surface of PIII

79

Annular ligaments (3)

Palmar annular
Proximal digital annular *X-shaped
Distal digital annular

80

Palmar ligament (at the fetlock) also known as

Intersesamoidean ligament *white, cartilaginous

81

Navicular bone also known as

Distal sesamoid

82

Navicular bursa also known as

Bursa podotrochlearis

83

Where does SDF insert

Splits and inserts on distal PI and proximal PII

84

Navicular syndrome

Bone, bursa, DDF infected, vascular

85

Navicular bursitis

Nail-penetrating wound - bacterial infection of bursa

86

Concussion mechanism of hoof

Frog (first thing to hit ground) -> heel -> bar -> quarter -> toe -> laminae -> periosteum -> distal phalanx
-absorbs shock and squeezes blood to venous return

87

Bones of shoulder girdle in ruminant

Scapula (clavicle absent)

88

Difference in humerus b/w equine and ruminant

Ruminant doesn't have intermediate tubercle

89

Difference in antebrachium b/w equine and ruminant

Ruminants have proximal and distal interosseus spaces, equine only has antebrachial interosseus space

90

Which carpal bones are absent/fused in the ruminant

1st absent, 2nd and 3rd fused

91

Carpal joint that provides the most movement in equine and ruminant

Antebrachiocarpal

92

Which metacarpal bones are absent/fused in the ruminant

MC II absent, MC V small and usually absent in small ruminants, MC III and IV fused (large)

93

Which digits are known as "dewclaws" (ruminant)

II and V - vestigial

94

Which digits are medial/lateral

Medial - III ("axial")
Lateral - IV ("abaxial")

95

Proximal and distal sesamoids are at what levels (ruminant)

Proximal at level of fetlock, distal at level of coffin

96

Each digit has how many sesamoid bones (ruminant)

2 proximal and 1 distal -> 6 total/foot

97

Which digit bears more weight in the thoracic and pelvic limbs

Thoracic - medial
Pelvic - lateral

98

Function of proximal and distal interdigital ligaments in bovine

To prevent digits from spreading apart under weight of animal

99

Interdigital ligaments in small ruminants

Proximal - not present
Distal - present as transverse band (vs X-shaped in bovine)

100

Which interdigital ligament could be identified as a "cruciate" ligament

Distal interdigital

101

Which artery runs along the dorsal surface of the ruminant digit

Dorsal metacarpal a. III (from radial a.)

102

Principal blood supply to ruminant digit

Median a. -> palmar common digital a. III -> palmar proper axial digital aa. III and IV

103

What comes from the proximal deep palmar arch

Palmar metacarpal aa. -> palmar common aa. and proper abaxial aa.

104

Common digital aa. give rise to

Proper digital aa.

105

Ruminant vessel/nerve naming surrounding fetlock

Named above fetlock -> "common" at level of fetlock -> "proper" distal to fetlock

106

Spine of the frog also known as

Frog stay

107

White line

Where sensitive and insensitive structures of equine hoof meet *important for nailing shoe

108

Function of corium (dermal)

Nutrition/sensation to foot

109

Laminar corium

Corium of the wall
Corium of the bar

110

Papillary corium

Perioplic corium
Coronary corium
Corium of the frog
Corium of the sole

111

Hoof wall grows from what

Coronary corium

112

Layers of epidermis

Stratum externum -> stratum medium -> stratum internum (laminae)

113

Coronary cushion

Thickened hypodermis (deepest layer of dermis) on dorsal border

114

Coronary band

Coronary cushion, perioplic corium, coronary corium

115

Interdigitating hoof laminae

Primary dermal and epidermal; secondary dermal and epidermal

116

Which laminae separate in laminitis

Primary and secondary epidermal laminae

117

Laminitis

Laminae become inflamed -> interlocking mechanism breaks down -> "walking on eggshells"
-bad enough - PIII rotates downward and penetrates sole (Founder's)
*digital pulse

118

Cartilage of the hoof located where

Palmar process of distal phalanx

119

Venous plexuses of hoof (3)

Coronary, dorsal = parietal, palmar

120

Passive stay apparatus

Biomechanical construct of tendons and ligaments, horse can stand with limbs locked and expend little energy
-prevents these movements: shoulder flexes -> elbow flexes -> carpus overextends -> fetlock overextends
*Guide pg 148

121

Suspensory apparatus

Suspensory and sesamoidean ligaments, suspends fetlock

122

Thrush

Inflammation or degeneration of frog, usually the result of standing in urine/feces

123

Corns

Bruises of the sole at angle of sole

124

Quittor

Infection of hoof cartilage that can lead to necrosis

125

Sidebone

Ossification of hoof cartilage

126

Digital neurectomy

Cut nerves to eliminate symptom but not cause (frowned upon)

127

Ligament of the ergot

Vestige of metacarpal pad, can be mistakenly cut w/ neurectomy (proximity to lateral digital n.)

128

Which laminae aren't present in the ruminant hoof

Secondary laminae

129

Anatomy of ruminant dewclaws

Vestigial digits II &V, no osseous development, palmar surface at level of fetlock

130

Ruminant interdigital gland

Present in sheep b/w digits III and IV, opens in dorsal part of interdigital cleft and produces waxy substance *only on front limbs

131

Which artery runs through the proximal interosseus space (ruminant b/w radius and ulna)

Cranial interosseus a.