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Flashcards in Head Deck (167):
1

Which nasal cartilages are present in the horse

Dorsal Lateral--attaches to nasal bone that rounds out top of nasal opening
Alar-- 1) cornu=curved part shapes the ventral aspect of nasal cavity
2) lamina-sheet like piece
Medial accessory--covered by alar fold covered by mucosa

2

describe the relationship of the alar cartilage to the anatomy of the nostril

Alar fold
--divides the two nostrils into halves (upper dorsal and lower ventral)
--flap of skin that projects into nasal cavity and attaches to ventral conchae
--forms the bottom nasal diverticulum

3

Limits and function of nasal cavity

Limits: extends from nasal opening back to level of eyes
function: filters, warms, and humidifies inspired air (accomplished by respiratory epithelium and turbinate bones)

4

describe the placement of a nasogastric tube in a horse

point the tube ventrally to avoid the nasal diverticulum

5

nasal septum

white piece of hyaline cartilage along midline
can get inflamed and get bigger and cause issues/obstruction

6

boundaries of the nasal cavity

dorsal--nasal bone
lateral-- 1) incisive bone 2) maxilla 3) lacrimal bone 4) zygomatic bone
ventral--hard palate--compound bone

7

Where is the best space to place a stomach tube

ventral/common nasal meatus

8

blood supply to the nasal cavity and nostrils

to the nostril: nasal arteries
to the nasal cavity: sphenopalantine arteries

9

innervation to nostrils and nasal cavity

sensory to nostril--infraorbital (twitching nose)
Motor to nostril--branches of facial nerve CN VII
Nerves in the nasal cavity--cranial nerves I (olfactory) and V (sensory to mucosa)

10

limits of nasal meatuses

Dorsal meatus--between dorsal conchae and nasal bone
middle meatus--between dorsal and ventral conchae
ventral meatus--between ventral conchae and hard palate
common meatus--along nasal septum spanning from nasal bone to hard palate

11

what is another name for internal nares

Choanae--exit from nasal cavity back into pharynx

12

what are the divisions of the mouth

vestibule--lateral to teeth
oral cavity proper--medial to teeth

13

what are the bones of the hard palate

Maxilla, palatine, incisive

14

what are the raphe and rugae

raphe--midline of oral cavity
rugae--ridges that eminate from raphe
Function to hold food within the oral cavity

15

What and where isthe incisive papilla

it is the blind end nasoincisive duct and it is the rounded bump behind teeth

16

Sublingual caruncle

triangular flap in rostril area of cavity
it is the flap for mandibular salivary gland

17

sublingual fold

extends in caudal direction and contains polystomatic sublingual salivary glands.
NO monostomatic sublingual salivary gland

18

lingual frenulum

fold of mucosa that attaches to tongue

19

what are the four types of lingual papillae

1-filiform--found on body and apex not on root (purely mechanical)
2-fungiform--lateral and scattered look like round dots
3-vallate--serve as anatomical landmark between root and body (crater/volcano shaped pits)
4-foliate-not really papillae but more like ridges located laterally on root

20

what papillae contain taste buds

fungiform, vallate, foliate

21

Intrinsic lingual muscles

form bulk of tongue and insert within the tongue itself

22

Extrinsic lingual muscles

originate away from structure and attach to tongue
Styloglossus--lateral
hyoglossus--root
genioglossus--medial
Associated lingual muscles

23

what are the associated lingual muscles

geniohyoideus--chin to hyoid bone
hyoepiglotticus--from hyoid to epiglottis
mylohyoideus--spans intermandibular space originating on inside edge of mandible

24

blood supply to the tongue

lingual and sublingual arteries--branches of the facial artery

25

Innervation to the tongue

Sensory--lingual nerve
Taste--rostral 2/3 via facial nerve branches CNVII
caudal 1/3 via glossopharyngeal nerve CN IX
motor--hypoglossal nerve CNXII

26

where is the parotid salivary gland

base of the ear to angle of jaw/mandible
opens on parotid papilla located opposite upper 4th premolar

27

where is the mandibular salivary gland

crescent shaped gland and deeper than parotid gland opens on sublingual caruncle

28

polystomatic sublingual salivary gland

opens along sublingual fold and must remove mucosa to see

29

Buccal salivary gland

dorsal and ventral=diffusely scattered
**dorsal=zygomatic salivary gland in dog

30

Divisions of the pharynx

Nasopharynx and oropharynx (divided by soft palate)
Laryngopharynx--just caudal to soft palate immediately surrounds larynx

31

pharyngeal Muscles

cricopharyngeus, thyropharyngeus, hyopharyngeus
Function as constrictors that propel food into esophagus

32

where are the various tonsillar tissues located

lingual tonsil--in root of the tongue
palatine tonsil--on the floor of pharynx
tonsil of soft palate--oval shaped spot on soft palate
pharyngeal tonsil--in pharyngeal roof
tubal tonsil--surrounds pharyngeal opening of the auditory tube

33

function of the pharyngeal opening of auditory tube

endoscopic landmark that is a communication of the auditory tube and nasopharynx
functions to equalize pressure

34

what is the conical papillae in ruminant that is absent in horses

conical papillae--named for shape or can be buccal papillae depending on location
papillae caudally project to help hold food in mouth (purely mechanical)

35

what is the dental pad in ruminant

area of upper teeth row where they lack incisors and canines

36

what is the lingual fossa

ditch/groove in middle of tongue separates apex from rest of tongue
**area where foreign bodies can become stuck

37

torus linguae

tissue caudal to lingual fossa--lump/bump

38

what ruminant lingual papilla have taste buds and what papillae do they lack

taste buds: vallate and fungiform
lack folliate papillae

39

what are lenticular papilla

broad and flat papilla on body and root of tongue

40

what is the pharyngeal septum

mucosal fold that partially divides nasopharynx into 2 halves that comes off the nasal septum.
Absent in horse

41

what are the sites of the tonsillar tissue within the ruminant

Lingual tonsil--in root of the tongue
tonsil of the soft palate--same as horse
palatine tonsil--different from other species--located in a sinus/invagination of wall of oropharynx
tubal tonsil--surrounds the pharyngeal opening of auditory tube

42

What hyoid bones make up the hyoid apparatus

Thyro, basi, kerato, epi, stylo, and tympanohyoid bones

43

Process of the epiglottis

Cuneiform

44

Parts of the thyroid cartilage

Body (ventral with notch) and lamina (rostral and caudal cornu)

45

Processes of the arytenoid

Corniculate, muscular, vocal (vocalis m. attaches)

46

Parts of the cricoid cartilage

Lamina (dorsal) and arch (ventral and lateral)

47

Extrinsic laryngeal mm.

Hyoepiglotticus, sternothyroideus, thyrohyoideus

48

Intrinsic laryngeal mm. and distinguishing features

Cricothyroideus - innervated by cranial laryngeal n.
Cricoarytenoideus dorsalis - abducts vocal fold

49

Parts of vocal apparatus

Glottis (vocal folds and arytenoid) and rima glottidis = cleft of the glottis

50

Parts of laryngeal ventricle

Lateral
Vestibular fold - rostral, wraps around cuneiform process (epiglottis)
Vocal fold - caudal, wraps around vocal process (arytenoid)
Median

51

Laryngeal ligaments

Cricothyroid, cricotracheal

52

Laryngeal innervation

Cranial laryngeal - cricothyroideus, sensory to mucosa of larynx
Recurrent laryngeal - all others

53

Roaring

Laryngeal hemiplegia - one sided (usually left) paralysis of vocal fold; not abducted bc something changes innervation to cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (recurrent laryngeal)

54

Causes of roaring (3)

-long recurrent laryngeal (horse bends neck to eat, stretches nerve - muscle atrophies)
-aortic pulsation (nerve wraps around pulsing aorta - causes pressure)
-enlarged tracheobronchial ln. (put pressure on nerve, seen after respiratory infection)

55

Treatments for roaring (3)

-ventriculectomy - remove lateral ventricle -> scar tissue -> retract fold out of airway
-"tie back" - suture material to recreate action of cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (artificially abduct fold)
-reinnervation (difficult, uncommon) - transplant neuromuscular flap where cricoarytenoideus dorsalis is, usually from omohyoideus

56

Process on frontal bone

Zygomatic

57

Osteologic landmark to describe procedures on face

Facial crest

58

Dermatomes

Areas of sensory innervation, useful for anesthetizing *Guide pg 155

59

Supraorbital foramen in what bone and what passes through it

Frontal bone, supraorbital n.

60

Infraorbital foramen in what bone and what passes through it

Maxilla, infraorbital n.

61

Maxillary foramen is entrance to what

Infraorbital canal

62

Where is the foramen lacerum and what structures exit from it

Ventral aspect of skull, CNIX, X, XI, and mandibular n. from CNV

63

What exits from the mandibular foramen

Inferior alveolar n/a/v to lower arcade of teeth

64

What exits from the mental foramen

Mental n. to the lower lip and chin

65

Coronoid vs condylar process of mandible

Coronoid - projects upward, spiky
Condylar - caudal, flat

66

Angle of mandible

Formed where body joins ramus

67

What passes through the vascular groove/notch of the mandible

Facial a/v (press finger against bone to read pulse) and parotid salivary duct

68

Processes of the orbit (3)

-zygomatic process of frontal bone
-zygomatic process of temporal bone
-temporal process of zygomatic bone

69

Equine vs canine orbit

Canine has ligament on lateral aspect, equine has bone

70

Cutaneus faciei and cutaneus colli are the equine equivalent of what in the dog

Platysma

71

Function and innervation of superficial mm. of the face

mm. of facial expression, innervated by CNVII

72

Zygomaticus runs along what structure

Facial crest

73

Caninus splits and passes through what m.

Levator nasolabialis

74

What m. lies on top of the parotid salivary gland

Parotidoauricularis

75

What mm. must you transect to see the temporalis m.

Auricular mm.

76

Innervation of mm. of mastication

CNV *exception - caudal belly of digastricus

77

mm. of mastication that close the mouth (3)

Masseter, pterygoid, temporalis

78

Muscle of mastication that opens the mouth (and parts)

Digastricus
-rostral belly
-caudal belly - caudal belly proper, occipitomandibularis

79

Digastricus innervation

Rostral belly - CNV
Caudal belly - CNVII

80

What divides the rostral and caudal bellies of digastricus

Intermediate tendon; stylohyoideus forms tunnel in tendon

81

Facial n. branches

Buccal branches - superficial, pass over masseter
auriculopalpebral n.
(both motor)

82

Clinical problem assoc. w/ buccal branches of facial n.

Facial paralysis caused by pressure on nn. on down side of horse (give them a pillow) or by trauma to face

83

Trigeminal n. branches

Auriculotemporal n. (sensory), transverse facial branch of auriculotemporal - runs w/ transverse facial a/v

84

Branches of facial a. (5)

Inferior labial, superior labial, lateral nasal, dorsal nasal, angularis oculi

85

Which 3 facial vv. have sinuses

Deep facial, buccal, facial

86

Which 2 facial vv. fuse to form the external jugular

Linguofacial and maxillary

87

General rule of facial innervation

Sensory - CNV *exception - also motor to mm. of mastication and rostral belly of digastricus
Motor - CNVII (facial expression and caudal belly of digastricus)

88

Parotid duct (where empties, clinical, runs with what)

-empties on parotid papilla near upper 4th PM
-can become plugged - place stylette to reopen
-runs w/ facial a/v (all in vascular groove)

89

Branches of external carotid (5)

Occipital
linguofacial trunk
masseteric
caudal auricular
superficial temporal

90

Branch of linguofacial trunk

Ascending palatine
(Bifurcates into lingual and facial -> sublingual)

91

Branches of superficial temporal

Rostral auricular, transverse facial

92

Branches of maxillary a. (10)

Inferior alveolar
a. to auditory tube
pterygoid branch
middle meningeal a.
Caudal deep temporal (enters alar canal -> rostral deep temporal, external ophthalmic)
Buccal
Infraorbital -> malar
(Maxillary becomes) descending palatine

93

Branches of descending palatine (3)

Minor palatine - soft palate
Major palatine - hard palate
Sphenopalatine - nasal cavity

94

Mandibular n. branches (3)

Inferior alveolar (most ventral)
Lingual
Buccal (most dorsal)

95

Paranasal sinuses (3)

Conchofrontal (frontal bone, combined w/ sinus of dorsal concha)
Maxillary
Sphenopalatine (communication b/w sphenoid and palatine sinuses)

96

Anatomic limits of conchofrontal sinus

Caudal - temporomandibular joint
Rostral - halfway b/w medial canthus and infraorbital foramen
Medial - midline
Lateral - zygomatic process of frontal bone

97

Surgical limits of conchofrontal sinus

Caudal - supraorbital foramen
Rostral - halfway b/w medial canthus and infraorbital foramen
Medial - 2 cm. lateral to midline
Lateral - supraorbital foramen to intersection of rostral and medial limits

98

Anatomic features of maxillary sinus (3)

Maxillary septum - divides sinus into rostral and caudal
Infraorbital canal - divides into medial and lateral
Nasomaxillary aperture - maxillary sinus to middle nasal meatus

99

Infraorbital canal is the entrance into what

Sinus of ventral concha - conchomaxillary opening

100

Surgical limits of maxillary sinus

Caudal - medial canthus
Rostral - infraorbital foramen to facial crest
Ventral - facial crest
Dorsal - infraorbital foramen to medial canthus

101

Iridic granule

(Corpora nigrans) normal, extension of iris that hangs down in pupillary space, diff from canine

102

Retropharyngeal ln.

Lateral - dorsal
Medial - ventral
External carotid passes b/w

103

Structures surrounding retropharyngeal ln.

Linguofacial trunk
Hypoglossal n. caudal to trunk
Glossopharyngeal n. cranial to trunk
*same in all spp.
Cranial laryngeal runs transverse and dives b/w hyo and thyropharyngeus

104

The horn covers what structure

Cornual process

105

Palpable bony facial structure in ruminant

Temporal line

106

The equine facial crest is what in the ruminant

Facial tuber

107

The transverse septum divides the paranasal sinuses into what parts (ruminant)

Rostral and caudal

108

The oblique septum divides the paranasal sinuses into what parts (ruminant)

Divides caudal part in half

109

Diverticula in ruminant paranasal sinuses

Nuchal, postorbital

110

Ruminant limits of frontal sinus

Level of intercornual protuberance
Median septum
Temporal line
Transverse septum

111

What runs across the transverse septum that needs to be avoided

Frontal v. - emerges from supraorbital foramen

112

Ruminant limits of maxillary sinus

Medial canthus to infraorbital foramen
Facial tuber to zygomatic arch
Vertical plane through facial tuberosity
Medial canthus to ventral limit

113

Blood supply to horn (4)

Common carotid -> external carotid -> superficial temporal -> cornual

114

Blood supply to ruminant nose (5)

Common carotid -> external carotid -> linguofacial trunk -> facial -> superior labial

115

Distinguishing feature of small ruminant blood flow

No facial a. - supplied by transverse facial (much larger)

116

Dehorning - nerve block what and remove what

Cornual n., remove epikeras or can produce horny outgrowths = scurs

117

Location of dehorning nerve block

Injection midway b/w horn and lateral canthus at temporal line

118

Dehorning considerations

Cornual n. may take abnormal path - infratrochlear n. may be abnormally long (failure of anesthesia)

119

Epikeras

Transitional epithelium in horn, equivalent of periople in hoof *remove

120

Small ruminant innervation to horn

Cornual n. (halfway b/w eye and horn), infratrochlear n. (toward opp base of horn) *block both for dehorning

121

Disbudding

Remove prior to 14 days - still free and lose in skin

122

Small ruminant sinuses

Smaller frontal sinus, no extensive overgrowth of frontal bone/sinus caudally like in bovine

123

Clinical consideration for dehorning small ruminants

Thermal meningitis (can "fry" their brain) due to lack of large frontal sinus

124

Glands in goats

Horn glands - caudomedial incision to remove

125

Glands in sheep

Glands of the infraorbital sinus/pouch - produce waxy substance that can stain wool/eye

126

Guttural pouch (and boundaries/compartments)

Mucosecretory, diverticulum to auditory tube
Dorsal boundary - base of cranium and atlas
Ventral - pharynx and esophagus
Divided by stylohyoid bone into lateral and medial compartments *medial is larger

127

Surgical approaches to guttural pouch (4)

Viborg's triangle
Hyovertebrotomy
Whitehouse
Modified Whitehouse

128

Viborg surgical approach

Access membrane/space of guttural pouch and retropharyngeal ln., can cut to drain

129

Hyovertebrotomy

Refers to stylohyoid bone and atlas, incision midway b/w stylohyoid and wing of atlas into dorsal aspect of guttural pouch

130

Whitehouse and modified Whitehouse

Median incision to guttural pouch
Modified - paramedian, parallel to linguofacial v. *preferred

131

Clinical signs of guttural pouch dz (5)

Nasal discharge - fluid into pharyngeal opening of auditory tube, can become mucoid -> empyema
Epistaxis - due to location of internal carotid in dorsomedial pouch
-aspergillus colonizes - can erode pouch and cause hemorrhage
Dysphagia - irritation of membrane affects CNIX and X (control swallowing)
Tympany - air trapped in pouch, usually younger animals
Horner's Syndrome - sympathetic system, cranial cervical ganglion affected by inflamed pouch

132

Dentition aging factors

Eruption dates, shape of tooth, wear pattern, dietary influence, angle of arcade, genetics, whole animal

133

Most accurate aging factor

Eruption date of lower permanent incisors

134

Deciduous equine dental formula

Di 3/3 Dc 0/0 Dp 3/3

135

Permanent equine dental formula

I 3/3 C 1/1 P (3/4)/3 M 3/3
(First PM variable - never see lower and if see upper, vestigial)

136

Wolf tooth

Upper first PM, can break through gum and cause problems with chewing (remove)

137

Canine teeth (eruption, male vs female)

Erupt at 3-5y, fully developed in male and vestigial if present in female

138

Location of interdental space = diastema (2)

Main - between canine and first PM
Smaller - between canine and incisors

139

Hypsodont tooth

High crown, roots form late -> pressure causes teeth to grow continually (reason you can use to age)

140

Brachydont tooth

Short crown, distinct neck, fully formed root (cats, dogs, humans)

141

Pulp cavity extends where

Rostral to infundibulum (cup)

142

Dentin is surrounded by what 2 layers

First enamel then cement

143

In wear

Incisors of upper and lower arcades contact, ~6 mo. after eruption

144

Level

Both teeth equally in wear

145

Enamel spot

Plug of enamel and cement left in cup

146

Dental star

Remodeled pulp cavity, secondary deposition of dentin *always rostral to cup and enamel spot

147

Galvayne's groove and ages of appearance

Appears on permanent upper I3, cement that turns brown (other cement wears away); first appears at 10y, halfway to occlusal surface at 15y, at surface at 20y

148

Incisor eruption dates

I1 - 2.5y
I2 - 3.5y
I3 - 4.5y
*+6 mo. if in wear

149

Premolar eruption dates

P1 - .5y
P2 - 2.5y
P3 - 3y
P4 - 4y

150

Molar eruption dates

M1 - 1y
M2 - 2y
M3 - 3y

151

Cup gone dates for incisors

I1 - 6y
I2 - 7y
I3 - 8y

152

7 year hook

*permanent upper I3
Due to malocclusion, gone at 9y and comes back at 11y (use other clues to determine age)

153

Teeth shape changes

Oval -> round -> triangular -> rectangular

154

Dates of shape changes for I1

Oval when emerges, round at 9y, triangular at 16y, rectangular at 18y

155

Dates of shape changes for I2

Oval when emerges, round at 10y, triangular at 17y, rectangular at 19y or older

156

Tooth points

On cheek teeth - can lacerate gums bc maxilla is wider than mandible

157

Floating

File down sharp edges, buccal surface on maxilla and lingual surface on mandible

158

Deciduous teeth characteristics

Smaller, shovel-shaped, distinct neck b/w crown and root, wavy w/ multiple lines (vs single groove in permanent)

159

Caps

Retained deciduous cheek teeth

160

Eruption dates for deciduous incisors

I1 - 7d
I2 - 7w
I3 - 7 mo.

161

Deciduous teeth changes w/ time

1y - DI1 and 2 in wear, DI3 erupted
2y - DI1 and 2 level, DI3 in wear (only labial cusp wearing)

162

When do you no longer need to evaluate deciduous teeth

2.5y (permanent I1 erupts)

163

Ruminant dental formula

I 0/4 C 0/0 P 3/3 (no first PM) M 3/3
*dental pad

164

Ruminant eruption dates for incisors

I1 - 1.5-2y
I2 - 2-2.5y
I3 - 3-3.5y
I4 - 3.5-4y

165

Small ruminant eruption dates for incisors

I1 - 1y
I2 - 2y
I3 - 3y
I4 - 4y

166

Ruminant dates for level incisors

I1 - 6y
I2 - 7y
I3 - 8y
I4 - 9y

167

When are all ruminant incisors in wear and when do they resemble pegs

5y, 15y (if present)