Pelvic Limb Flashcards Preview

anatomy-horse And Ruminant > Pelvic Limb > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pelvic Limb Deck (128):
1

Which skeletal structures are included in the pes?

Tarsal bones, metatarsals, P1, P2, P3 (digital bones)

2

Which skeletal structures comprise the equine digit?

Pastern, Coronet, hoof
(and sometimes the proximal sesamoid bones)

3

Which structures are found in the extensor fossa of the femur?

origins of:
long digital extensor
peroneus tertius

4

What is the tuber coxae?
Os coxae?
Ossa coxarum?

tuber coxae - point of the hip
os coxae - pelvic/hip bone (singular)
ossa coxarum - pelvis (plural)

5

Which structures form the tarsal canal?
Which structures pass through it?

form - Tc, T3, T4
passes through - perforating tarsal artery

6

What is the difference between the tarsal and flexor canals?

tarsal canal - perforating artery passes through, and made up of the tarsal bones
flexor canal - superficial and lateral heads of DDF pass through, and made up of the flexor retinaculum

7

What are the extensors of the hip joint?

Middle gluteal, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus, quadratus femoris

8

What are the abductors of the hip joint?

Superficial gluteal, middle gluteal, deep gluteal

9

What are the flexors of the hip joint?

sartorius, iliacus, psoas major, tensor fascia latae, superficial gluteal, rectus femoris

10

What are the extensors of the stifle joint?

quadriceps femoris

11

What are the flexors of the sifle joint?

semimembranosus, semitendinosus, popliteus, biceps femoris

12

What are the adductors of the hip joint?

gracilis, adductor, pectineus, external obturator

13

What are the extensors of the tarsal joint?

gastrocnemius, soleus, SDF

14

What are the flexors of the tarsal joint?

long digital extensor, lateral digital extensor, cranial tibial muscle, peroneus tertius

15

What are the extensors of the digital joints?

long digital extensor, lateral digital extensor

16

What are the flexors of the digital joints?

Superficial and deep digital flexors

17

What are the long and short heads of the thigh muscles?

long head - attaches to the vertebral bodies
short head - attaches at ischial arch/ischiatic head

18

What are the boundaries of the femoral triangle?

cranial - sartorius muscle
caudal - pectineus muscle

19

What are the contents of the femoral triangle?

femoral artery
femoral vein
saphenous nerve
deep inguinal lymph node

20

What is the only muscle located in the metatarsal area?

short digital extensor muscle

21

What are the heads of the deep digital flexor muscle?

superficial - caudal tibial muscle - separate tendon, but common synovial sheath with lateral head
medial - separate tendon + synovial sheath
lateral - very large, common synovial sheath with superficial head

22

What is the main arterial path through the pelvic limb?

external iliac -> femoral -> popliteal -> cranial tibial -> dorsal pedal -> dorsal metatarsal III -> distal perforating branch -> digital arteries

23

What are the arterial branches that enter into the formation of the S-shaped anastomosis located in the region of the tarsus?

descending branch of the caudal femoral artery
caudal tibial artery
saphenous artery
*S shape allows vessels to bend w/ flexion/extension

24

Which arterial branches originate from the deep plantar arch?

lateral and medial plantar metatarsal arteries

25

Where is the dorsal pedal artery located?

Dorsal surface at level of hock

26

How is the terminal arch formed?

medial and lateral digital arteries (solar canal)

27

What is the difference between the tarsal and flexor canals?

tarsal canal - perforating artery passes through, and made up of the tarsal bones
flexor canal - superficial and lateral heads of DDF pass through, and made up of the flexor retinaculum

28

Femoral n. innervates

Quadriceps, primary extensor of stifle

29

Saphenous n. innervates

Sartorius, sensory to medial aspect

30

Obturator n. innervates

Adductors of hip, runs w/ obturator a. on shaft of ilium
**can have paralysis during parturition due to pressure on n.

31

Tibial n. innervates

Caudomedial mm.

32

Common peroneal n. is located where and bifurcates into what

Cranial aspect; bifurcates into superficial and deep peroneal nn. on distal metatarsus

33

Point of the hock

Tuber calcanei

34

Chestnut

Remnant of tarsal pad, crusty skin

35

Ergot

Remnant of metatarsal pad, tuft of hair

36

Pastern

Fetlock to top of hoof

37

Stifle joint is compound and made up of which 3 joints

Femoropatellar and 2 femorotibial joints

38

Proximal and distal interphalangeal joints aka

Proximal - pastern joint
Distal - coffin joint

39

Which 2 mm. insert on the fovea capitis

Accessory ligament of hip (extension of prepubic tendon), round ligament of head of femur

40

Trochlea and condyle - which is cranial/caudal

Trochlea - cranial
Condyle - caudal

41

Origin of SDF

Supracondyloid fossa *remember SDF starts on femur

42

Fibula development

Head doesn't develop completely like ulna in thoracic limb

43

What passes through the crural interosseus space

Cranial tibial a.

44

Lateral malleolus

Represents fused distal end of fibula (~styloid process in thoracic limb)

45

Medial splint bone is which metatarsal bone

Metatarsal bone II

46

Lateral splint bone is which metatarsal bone

Metatarsal bone IV

47

Other names for PI, PII, and PIII

PI - long pastern bone
PII - short pastern bone
PIII - coffin bone

48

Function of middle gluteal

Extensor and abductor

49

How do you differentiate the accessory head of the middle gluteal from the deep gluteal

Deep gluteal is attached directly to the ilium, has tendinous intersections (streaks) on surface

50

Trochanteric bursa

Can become inflamed -> trochanteric bursitis or "whorl bone"

51

Which nn. innervate middle gluteal, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus

Gluteal (cranial or caudal) and sciatic nn.

52

Which n. innervates semimembranosus and quadratus femoris

Sciatic n.

53

Which n. innervates superficial and middle gluteal

Gluteal nn. (cranial or caudal)

54

Parts of quadriceps femoris (4)

Rectus femoris
Vastus medialis
Vastus lateralis
Vastus intermedius ("hotdog")

55

Tibial n. innervates (2)

Extensors of tarsal joint and flexors of digital joints (caudomedial mm.)

56

Peroneal n. innervates (2)

Flexors of tarsal joint and extensors of digital joints (craniolateral mm.)

57

Major components of common calcanean tendon

Gastrocnemius (inserts on tuber calcanei), SDF (inserts on digit)

58

Minor components of common calcanean tendon

Fascial sheets from biceps femoris, semitendinosus

59

Components of reciprocal apparatus (2)

SDF, peroneus tertius (connective tissue band in equine)

60

Functional effect of reciprocal apparatus

Stifle and hock joints reciprocate: stifle flexes -> hock flexes, stifle extends -> hock extends

61

Extension of hock upon flexion of stifle is pathognomonic for what

Rupture of peroneus tertius

62

Which 2 tendons of the DDF fuse and travel through the tarsal canal

Tendons of the superficial and lateral heads (medial head travels outside canal and fuses w/ these distal to hock)

63

Which check ligaments are present in the pelvic limb

Distal check ligament - variable
Proximal - NOT present

64

Parts of extensor retinaculum (4)

Crural = proximal
Tarsal = middle
Metatarsal = distal
Lateral (holds tendon of lateral digital extensor)

65

Thoroughpin

Name for inflammatory process of the common synovial tarsal sheath that surrounds the superficial and lateral heads of the DDF

66

When does external iliac become the femoral

After deep femoral branches off

67

Medial and lateral digital aa. come from which a. on the plantar surface

Distal perforating branch

68

Medial and lateral digital aa. give off what branches

Dorsal branches to PI, PII, and PIII, branch to the digital cushion

69

Branches of the deep femoral

Pudendoepigastric trunk, medial circumflex femoral

70

Branches of the femoral (4)

Lateral circumflex femoral
Saphenous
Descending genicular
Caudal femoral (descending branch)

71

Caudal femoral is the same as which a. in the dog

Distal caudal femoral

72

Which a. passes through the tarsal canal

Perforating tarsal a.

73

Primary blood supply to digit

Dorsal metatarsal III

74

Medial and lateral plantar aa. anastomose w/ which aa.

Medial and lateral digital aa.

75

Saphenous n. is a branch of which nerve and innervates which muscle

Femoral n.; sartorius

76

Deep peroneal n. splits into which 2 nn. at the level of the tarsus

Medial and lateral dorsal metatarsal nn.

77

Medial and lateral dorsal metatarsal nn. become which nn. at the level of the fetlock

Medial and lateral dorsal digital nn.

78

Superficial peroneal nn. gives off which 2 branches

Lateral and dorsal branches

79

Which 2 plantar nn. have dorsal branches

Medial and lateral plantar digital nn.

80

Caudal cutaneous sural and medial cutaneous tarsal nn. are branches of which nerve

Tibial n.

81

Which nerve provides the main motor and sensory function to the plantar surface

Tibial n.

82

Medial and lateral plantar nn. change to which nn. at the level of the fetlock

Medial and lateral plantar digital nn.

83

Which 2 nn. innervate the suspensory ligament

Medial and lateral plantar metatarsal nn.

84

Communicating branch connects which 2 nn.

Medial and lateral plantar nn.

85

Which ligament covers the acetabular notch

Transverse acetabular ligament

86

Which ligament attaches to the fovea capitis and makes femoral luxation less common in the horse

Accessory ligament of the hip

87

Components of the stifle joint (4)

Femoropatellar
Femorotibial *2 - lateral and medial parts of tibia
Lateral and medial meniscus
Synovial fluid

88

Synovial compartments of stifle joint (3)

Femoropatellar
Medial and lateral femorotibial

89

Which 2 synovial compartments have 100% communication? Which 2 have none?

100% - femoropatellar and medial femorotibial
None - medial and lateral femorotibial
(Femoropatellar and lateral femorotibial - 25%)

90

Fibrocartilage flap is part of which ligament of the stifle

Medial patellar ligament

91

4 components of "patellar loop" (patellar locking mechanism)

Patella and fibrocartilage
Medial patellar ligament
Intermediate patellar ligament
Medial trochlear ridge

92

Upward fixation and treatment

Clinical condition of patellar locking mechanism - trouble unlocking limb (patella) by contraction of quadriceps, so horse swings limb out in wide arc -> correct by medial patellar desmotomy

93

Tarsal canal is a natural space between which 3 bones

Central tarsal, T III, and T IV

94

Which artery passes through the tarsal canal

Perforating tarsal a.

95

Flexor retinaculum spans what space

Tuber calcanei to medial hock -> changes tarsal groove to flexor canal

96

Synovial compartments of tarsal joint (4)

Tarsocrural
Proximal intertarsal
Distal intertarsal
Tarsometatarsal

97

Which synovial compartment has the greatest movement

Tarsocrural

98

Which 2 synovial compartments have 100% communication

Tarsocrural and proximal intertarsal

99

Joint pouches of tarsal joint (3)

Dorsal
Medioplantar
Lateroplantar

100

Subtendinous bursa is deep to which muscle

SDF *always present

101

Presence of subcutaneous bursa

Variable - present w/ trauma, "capped hock" when present

102

Cunean bursa is a cushion for which tendon

Medial tendon of cranial tibial m. = cunean tendon = jack cord

103

Which muscle doesn't have a synovial sheath

Gastrocnemius

104

Function of retinacula

To hold tendons in place

105

Dorsal extensor retinacula (3)

Crural = proximal
Tarsal = middle
Metatarsal = distal

106

Retinacula of tarsal joint (3)

Dorsal extensor retinacula (3)
Lateral extensor retinaculum
Flexor retinaculum

107

Superficial boundary of flexor canal

Flexor retinaculum

108

Curb

Name for when the long plantar ligament is swollen from trauma

109

Which ligament holds the flexor tendons in place

Plantar annular ligament

110

Plantar ligament is the same as

Intersesamoidean ligament

111

Shapes of proximal and distal digital annular ligaments

Proximal - X
Distal - crescent

112

The digital sheath holds which tendons

SDF and DDF

113

Insertion of long digital extensor

Extensor process of PIII

114

Insertion of DDF

Flexor surface of PIII

115

Insertion of SDF

Distal part of PI and proximal part of PII

116

Insertion of suspensory ligament

Proximal sesamoids

117

Distal sesamoidean ligaments include which ligaments

Straight, oblique, cruciate

118

Spavin

Any condition that affects the hock

119

Bog spavin

Excess joint fluid

120

Blood spavin

Cranial branch of medial saphenous v. pushed out due to underlying bog spavin (distended joint pouches - misnomer)

121

Bone spavin

Osteoarthritis

122

Spavin test

Hold hock in flexion for 2 minutes, positive if more lame after

123

Thoroughpin

Inflammation/swelling of tarsal sheath

124

Stringhalt and treatment

Involuntary flexion of lateral digital extensor (misfiring) -> treat by cutting tendon

125

Main components of passive stay apparatus (3)

Patellar locking mechanism
Reciprocal apparatus
Suspensory apparatus of fetlock (distal fetlock held in overextension by sesamoidean ligaments)

126

Sciatic n. travels through what and terminates as what

Greater sciatic foramen; terminates as tibial

127

Tibial n. becomes lateral palmar when

At level of hock

128

Medial plantar digital n. is located where

At level of fetlock